Watchman's Teaching Letter #53 September 2002
This is my fifty-third monthly teaching letter and continues my fifth year of publication. In Watchman’s Teaching Letters #49 and #50, we started a walk-through of Daniel’s prophecies. The purpose for doing that was to counter many of the irrational ideas some have concerning both the book of Daniel and Revelation. Many in the past have tried to push all these prophecies either into the far distant future or into the remote past for various religious, political or monetary reasons. Those who project these prophecies into the future are termed “Futurists”, and those who contrive them to be in the past are dubbed “Preterists.” While there are some prophecies yet to be fulfilled in the future, and many already fulfilled in the past, the proper interpretation for these books should be “Historical.” There is little disagreement that Daniel’s prophecies were “Historical” in nature. Therefore, the prophecies of Daniel, which overlap Revelation, must also be “Historical.” Once we comprehensively cover Daniel’s prophecies, we will discover that “overlap” is greater than we might have anticipated. As we explore Daniel ch. 7, we will see it is much the same as ch. 2, as we covered in lessons #49 & #50, except toward the final phase, where it will open into an entirely different and important area of study. At the beginning of ch. 7, we will be dealing again with the same empires that we considered in ch. 2: Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece & Rome. But instead of an image of diminishing metals, the empires will be depicted as animals. The important subject we are going to encounter in ch. 7 is the much disputed “little horn”, which in fact is only one of two. With this lesson, we will examine Daniel chapter 7, and in future lessons, we will need to deliberate on chapters 8 and 9. To get started with this one, we will look into an aspect of Daniel which is rarely adequately addressed:
THE TWO “LITTLE HORNS” OF DANIEL
The two “little horns” of Daniel are the source of much confusion in interpreting his prophecies. The “little horn” of Dan. 7:8 is not the same “little horn” of Dan. 8:9. Some say the “little horn” of Dan. 8:9 is Antiochus Epiphanes, but we will save that misguided assumption until we consider Daniel chapter 8. With this presentation we will deal only with the “little horn” of Dan. 7:8. Actually, Daniel chapter 7 is parallel to chapter 2, which we have already covered. And like chapter 2, chapter 7 addresses the four empires of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome, but from a different perspective. With this presentation, we will read a few verses at a time and then make comment. I will be using the following Bible commentaries: 1.- Bible Knowledge Com. 2.- Believer’s Bib. Com. 3.- Clarke’s Bib. Com. 4.- Wycliffe Bib. Com. 5.- Jamieson, Fausset & Brown Bib. Com. 6.- International Bib. Com., and 7.- Matthew Poole’s Bib. Com.
Daniel 7:1-4: “1 In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream, and told the sum of the matters. 2 Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea. 3 And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another. 4 The first was like a lion, and had eagle’s wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man’s heart was given to it.”
Bible Knowledge, vol. 1, p. 1349: The vision recorded by the Prophet Daniel in this chapter was revealed to him in the first year of Belshazzar’s reign, 553 B.C., when Belshazzar was made co-regent with Nabonidus. Daniel’s dream predated by 14 years his experience in the lions’ den (chap. 6) which occurred in or soon after 539. When the dream came Daniel was about 68 years of age, for he was taken captive (at about the age of 16) 52 years earlier in 605 B.C.
Bible Knowledge, vol. 1 p. 1350: Throughout the Old Testament, the Mediterranean Sea is referred to as the Great Sea, (Num. 34:6-7; Josh, 1:4; 9:1; 15:12, 47; 23:4; Ezek. 47:10, 15, 20; 48:28). This vision then relates specifically to the Mediterranean world. Wycliffe, p. 789: Four great beasts came up from the sea. Hence, the beasts, later described, are connected with the Mediterranean area. Likewise, as the prophetic symbolical use of “sea” indicates, they arise with turmoil, unrest, boisterous talk, etc. Jamieson, et al, p. 746: Tregelles takes “the great sea” to mean as always elsewhere in Scripture (Josh. 1:4; 9:1), the Mediterranean, the center territorially of the four kingdoms of the vision, which all border on it, and have Jerusalem subject to them. Babylon did not border on the Mediterranean, nor rule Jerusalem, till Nebuchadnezzar’s time, when both things took place simultaneously. Persia encircled more of the sea, viz., from the Hellespont to Cyene. Greece did not become a monarchy before Alexander’s time, but then, succeeding to Persia, it became mistress of Jerusalem. It surrounded still more of the Mediterranean, adding the coasts of Greece to the part held by Persia. Rome, under Augustus, realized three things at once — it became a monarchy; it became mistress of the last of the four parts of Alexander’s empire (symbolized by the four heads of the third beast), and of Jerusalem; it surrounded all the Mediterranean.
Wycliffe, p. 789: The lion symbolizes Babylon here and also in Jer. 4:6, 7. The eagle’s wings speak of swiftness, as the lion of strength. These are natural symbols scarcely needing explanation (cf. 2 Sam. 1:23; Jer. 49:19-22; Ezk. 17:3-24). Poole’s, vol. 2, p. 830: Lion and eagle; one the king of beasts, the other the king of birds, for which he is called the golden head, as Dan. 2:32, 38. This was the Chaldean or Assyrian; whose seat was first at Babylon, after Nineveh, and then at Babylon again. Poole’s, vol. 2, p. 830: The wings thereof were plucked; which was first in stopping the career of their victories, and after in casting them out of their kingdom, the nation was not destroyed, but their monarchy. Jamieson et al, p. 746: But after he learned by this sore discipline that “the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men” (ch. 4:35, 36), the change took place in him, “a man’s heart is given him; instead of his former beast’s heart, he attains man’s true position.” Bible Knowledge, vol. 1, p. 1350: The lion’s rising up on two feet (its hind legs) made it look more like a man. The fact that it got a man’s heart suggests that the animal lost its beastly nature and showed compassion. [here man = enash, #606]
“5 And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh.”
Believer’s, p. 1083: The bear pictures Medo-Persia. The Persian section was raised up to greater importance than the Median. The three ribs which it held in its mouth perhaps represent the three sections of the Babylonian Empire which were sacked by the Medes and Persians under Cyrus — Babylon in the east; Egypt in the south; and the Lydian kingdom in Asia Minor. Poole’s, vol. 2, p. 831: Another beast, viz. the Medes and Persians, a fierce, grim ravenous creature, and barbarously cruel, especially the mountainous part, as of Caucasus, Armenia, and Media by the Caspian Sea near the Tartars, and that which borders upon the Mogul, the Usbecks, and the Sasbuts; read Isa. 13:17, 18; Jer. 51:48, 53, called spoilers. See Jer. 51:11 &c. Thus God sent in the northern bears upon Babylon to devour flesh. See how God calls them against Babylon, Jer. 51:20-23, 27, 28; he reckons Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz, and the Medes, i.e. Armenia, Parthia, Hyrcania &c., the rough northern hungry bears. On one side, i.e. the north side; for the Medes first arose and sent to Cyrus the Persian to come in and assist him against the Assyrian, and made him general. It had three ribs in the mouth of it: several of the Babylonian subjects revolted from the Babylonian, (and all these made the three ribs,) as the Hyrcanians, and Gobrias. Wycliffe, p. 789: The bear is an apt symbol of the Medo-Persian kingdom. Strength and ferocity figure in almost every Biblical use of the bear. The ponderous bulk fits the massive Persian armies. Xerxes is said to have moved two and one-half million men to attack Greece. Jamieson et al, p. 746: bear — symbolizing the austere life of the Persians in their mountains, also their cruelty (Isa. 13:17, 18; Cambyses, Ochus, and other of the Persian princes were notoriously cruel; the Persian laws involved for one man’s offense, the whole kindred and neighbor hood in destruction, ch 6:24) and rapacity. “A bear is an all-devouring animal” ... raised ... itself on one side — but the Hebrew, “It raised up one dominion.” The Medes, an ancient people, and the Persians, a modern tribe, formed one united sovereignty in contrast to the third and fourth kingdoms, each originally one, afterwards divided. English Version is the result of a slight change of a Hebrew letter. The idea then would be, “It lay on one of its fore feet, and stood on the other”; a figure still to be seen on one of the stones of Babylon (Munter, Relig. Babyl., 112); denoting a kingdom that had been at rest, but is now rousing itself for conquest. Media is the lower side, passiveness; Persia, the upper active element [Auberlen].
“6 After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it.”
Believer’s, p.1083: The leopard is a type of Greece. Its four wings of a bird speak of the rapid expansion of the Grecian Empire. Four is the number of the world. Wings speak of speed. Within thirteen years Alexander conquered the world, marching as far east as India. Then died at thirty-three — empty handed. The leopard’s four heads apparently set forth the division of the empire to four of Alexander’s generals after his death.
Clarke’s, p. 698: Another, like a leopard ... four wings ... four heads. This was the Macedonian or Greek empire, and Alexander the Great its king. Four wings of a fowl. The Babylonian empire was represented with two wings; and they sufficiently marked the rapidity of Nebuchadnezzar’s conquests. But the Macedonian has here four wings; for nothing in the history of the world, was equal to the conquests of Alexander, who ran through all the countries from Illyricum and the Adriatic Sea to the Indian Ocean and the River Ganges; and in twelve years subdued part of Europe and all Asia. The beast had also four heads. Signifying the empire after the death of Alexander, divided between his four generals: Cassander reigning over Macedon and Greece; Lysimachus, over Thrace and Bithynia; Ptolemy, over Egypt; and Seleucus, over Syria. Dominion was given to it. It was not owing to the skill, courage, or valor of Alexander and his troops that he made those wondrous conquests; the nations were given to him. For, as Bishop Newton says, had he not been assisted by the mighty power of God, how could he, with only 30,000 men, have overcome Darius with 600,000; and in so short a time have brought the countries from Greece as far as India into subjection?
“7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns. 8 I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and behold in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.”
IT’S AT THIS POINT THE COMMENTARIES GO ASTRAY
In the mainstream, most commentaries identify the “fourth beast” as being the Roman Empire. Because they are blind to the fact that the Israelites are the Anglo-Saxon and related peoples, they depart from their well-founded understanding of Daniel’s prophecy, and venture into several confused directions. Other than his incorrect remark about Antiochus Epiphanes, Matthew Poole, vol. 2, page 831, is less biased:
“Daniel considered, and this calls upon us to consider the matter. Another little horn: some will have the Turk meant; others, before him, Antiochus Epiphanes; others Julius Cæsar; others antichrist. It is certain the horn that riseth out of the he-goat is Antiochus, Dan. 8:9-12, but the horn here mentioned riseth out of the fourth beast, or under him ...”
With this in mind, I will use such commentary as I can without getting on the subject of the “little horn.”
Poole’s, vol. 2, p. 831: A fourth beast: this was the Roman empire; for that followed the Grecian, and was monstrous as to his rise and progress. Stamped the residue with the feet of it. As to the variety and cruelty of the government, it made use not only of Italians, but Spaniards, Gauls, Germans, Britons, which made their armies hardy and hard as iron, which broke in pieces the gold, silver, and brass. But it is plain this is the last kingdom of the four, that was to be destroyed by Christ’s kingdom ...
Bible Knowledge, vol. 1, p. 1350: Daniel now described a fourth beast. Instead of likening it to some known animal Daniel simply called it a beast. Apparently it was a mongrel composed of parts of a lion, bear, and leopard ... This fourth beast was more terrifying and powerful than the three preceding beasts, which were all ferocious and destructive. This beast had large iron teeth with which it was able to crush and devour its prey. The empire represented by this mongrel beast had crushed and assimilated into itself the three previous empires by the lion, the bear, and the leopard (it trampled underfoot whatever was left; cf. Dan. 7:19).
To sum up what we have learned from these Bible commentaries, we have found the four beast-empires which Daniel was prophesying about centered around the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, chapters 2 and 7 can only primarily be: Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece & Rome. But, in a secondary sense, they can represent the religious, political, monetary & racial aspects those empires projected, in some cases up to our present day. That being said, the Roman Empire will never be reestablished as many “Futurists” claim. The Futurists’ problem is, they are unable or unwilling to see that many of the primary aspects of Daniel’s prophecies have already “Historically” happened.
ADAM CLARK GETS THE “10 HORNS” RIGHT
Out of all my Bible commentaries, only Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible interprets the ten horns of Daniel 7:7 in a correct manner, though he fails to identify them properly and doesn’t do well on the “little horn” of Daniel 7:8, page 698:
“I saw ... a fourth beast ... it had great iron teeth. This is allowed, on all hands, to be the Roman empire. It was dreadful, terrible, and exceeding strong; it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue, that is, the remains of the former kingdoms, with its feet. It reduced Macedon into a Roman province about one hundred and sixty-eight years before Christ; the kingdom of Pergamos, about one hundred and thirty-three years; Syria, about sixty-five; and Egypt, about thirty years before Christ. And, besides the remains of the Macedonian empire, it subdued many other provinces and kingdoms; so that it might, by a very usual figure, be said to devour the whole earth, to tread it down, and break it to pieces; and become in effect, what the Roman writers delight to call it, ‘the empire of the whole world.’ It had ten horns. The ten kingdoms into which the Roman empire was afterwards divided.”
In Watchman’s Teaching Letter #12 for April, 1999, there was presented substantial evidence about the “little horn” of Daniel 7:8. Because about 75% of those on my present mailing list of about 460 never received that lesson, I will repeat 22 paragraphs of that Teaching Letter here. There is a lot of speculation on Daniel 7:8, but we will dispel most of that errant supposition with that previously presented evidence:
With this lesson (#12), we are going to continue the study of Judah. In this study, we will consider a passage that was prophesied by Daniel during the Judean capti/pspan style=letter-spacing: 2.0ptspan style= in contrast to the third and fourth kingdoms, each originally one, afterwards divided. vity in Babylon and see how it affected Judah when it was fulfilled about 1100 years later. This passage is Daniel 7:24-25, which we will read at this time:
24 And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. 25 And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.”
BEFORE WE GET DONE WITH THIS LESSON, WE WILL FIND
WHAT THIS PASSAGE IS, AND WHAT IT IS NOT!
First of all, we are going to skip the subject of, “And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise”, as it is a subject all in itself. It would take an entire lesson just to cover it. (As of lessons #49, #50 and the present lesson #53, that “subject” is now being addressed.) The part we are going to concentrate on is: “... and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.”
To start this discussion on this passage, I am going to quote from William V. Fowler’s book, End Time Revelation, page 127:
“To identify the ten horns of the fourth beast which was the Roman Empire, one has but to examine history which records that ten kingdoms arose after A.D. 476 in the western half of the Roman Empire, while the eastern half continued to flourish. History also reveals that Justinian at the head of the Eastern (Roman) Empire at Constantinople subdued three of the ten kingdoms which were established in the western half of the Roman Empire after the fall of Imperial Rome. These were the Vandals whose kingdom had been established in north Africa, the Ostrogoths who had established a kingdom in Italy, and the Alemanian kingdom north of Italy. ‘And he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings’ (verse 24). Justinian, as head of the civil government, united the interest of the church and established the Temporal Power of the Papacy which clearly fulfilled the prophetic little horn by dominating Europe for 1,260 years until curtailed by Napoleon, (538 A.D. to 1,798 A.D.).
“And he shall speak great words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and think to change times and laws (verse 25). Justinian’s best known work was as a codifier and legislator. He greatly stimulated legal studies, and set up a commission under Tribonian which issued the codex, the digest, and the institutes. (Originally introduced in Dec. 534 A.D., and completed in 538 A.D.). The second edition of the codex contained Justinian’s own laws known as the Novels (Novellae Constitutions). One need only read the utterances of Pope Innocent III in the thirteenth century and his immediate successors to recognize the fulfillment of speaking ‘great words against the Most High.’ Study the history of the Inquisition with its massacres, martyrdoms and every kind of persecution to substantiate this interpretation. (See Halley’s Bible Handbook, chapter on Church History.)”
This is one of the key passages “futurists” use to prove a future so-called Antichrist and a three and one half year period of tribulation, along with the so-called mark of the beast. If our people understood history, they wouldn’t be falling for such nonsense. All that futurist bunk was dreamed up by a Spanish Jesuit by the name of Ribera about 1580 A.D., and no one before that time ever heard of such a doctrine.
The important thing to notice with this passage, is that we are looking for a king of a kingdom who subdued three other kingdoms of our people during his reign. You will also notice we are looking for a king, who, during his reign had a very strong impact upon writing and managing laws. You will notice Justinian fits both of these qualifications. As we go along, the picture of the fulfillment of this passage will start to come into focus. I will now quote from The World Book Encyclopedia, volume 11, page 168 to get further insight on this subject:
“JUSTINIAN I, jus TIN ih un (A.D. 482-565), was the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from A.D. 527 until his death. He collected Roman laws under one code, the Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law). This code, also known as the Justinian Code, is the basis of the legal systems in many nations today ... Justinian was called The Great. He recaptured many parts of what had been the West Roman Empire from barbarians. He built fortresses, harbors, monasteries, and the famous church of Saint Sophia in what is now Istanbul, Turkey.
“Justinian was born in a part of Macedonia that is now in Yugoslavia. His uncle, Emperor Justin I, made him co-ruler in 527. Justin died a few months later, and Justinian became sole emperor. During Justinian’s reign, his wife, Theodora, tried to influence his politics ... Justinian was an orthodox Christian, and tried to unify his empire under one Christian faith. He persecuted Christian heretics (those who opposed church teachings), Jews, and pagans (non-Christians). In 529, he closed the schools of philosophy in Athens, Greece, because he felt they taught paganism.
“In the early 530’s, Justinian began a series of wars against the Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Visigoths, who had conquered most of the West Roman Empire in the 400’s. By the mid-550’s his armies had taken northern Africa, Italy, and parts of Spain ...
“JUSTINIAN CODE. Justinian I, ruler of the eastern Roman Empire from 527 to 565, commanded 10 of the wisest men in his realm to draw up a collection of the Roman laws. This collection is known as the Corpus Juris Civilis, which means Body of Civil Law. Also called the Justinian Code, this body of law is recognized as one of the greatest Roman contributions to civilization. It was a compilation of early Roman laws and legal principles, illustrated by cases, and combined with an explanation of new laws, and future legislation. The code clarified the laws of those times, and has since been a basis for law codes of many countries.
“The scholars who compiled the Justinian Code divided it into four parts. The Institutes served as a textbook in law for students and lawyers. The Digest was a casebook covering many trials and decisions. The Codex was a collection of statutes and principles. The Novels contained proposed new laws.”
You will notice in both of these quotes, three kingdoms were taken by Justinian. William V. Fowler records them the same as The World Book Encyclopedia except for the Alemanian which The World Book Encyclopedia calls the Visigoths. The Alemanni and Visigoths are different tribes of the same people, so there is no problem here. Justinian was corrupting the church and the state with his law code, so we will not completely understand this passage unless we look further. To see how all of this happened, I will quote from the book, Study in Daniel, by Howard B. Rand, pages 182 and 183:
“Having discovered the identity of the four beasts; let us now note the meaning of the little horn which Daniel saw arise from among the ten horns on the fourth beast. The ten horns represent subdivisions in the Roman Empire:
“The little horn that arose among the ten, which was diversified from them, pulling up three, is none other than Justinian at the head of the Eastern [Roman] Empire at Constantinople. History reveals that he subdued three of the ten kingdoms which were established in the Roman Empire after the fall of Imperial Rome. These were the Vandals whose kingdom had been established in north Africa, The Ostrogoths who had established a kingdom in Italy and the Alemannian Kingdom north of Italy. In the eyes and the mouth that appear in this little horn we have a new power associated with the rule of the little horn. In fact, this power became the eyes and mouth of the civil and economic activities of the government represented in the little horn. Justinian, as head of the civil government, and the Pope, as the head of the Church, united their interest and Church and State became one. Finally the Pope became the director of both Church and State and ruled as a great politico-ecclesiastical potentate. One needs but read the utterances of past Popes to recognize the fulfillment of speaking ‘great words against the most High’ as prophesied by Daniel.” [emphasis mine]
Again, I will take you to Watchman’s Teaching Letter #12 of April, 1999 to show you the connection between Justinian and the popes of the Roman Catholic Church. This is an interesting perception, for the popes gained their state-political authority by Justinian’s Law Code.
What we are talking about here is an ecclesiastical-political power with the combination of Justinian and the Pope. That is why this new ecclesiastic-political beast is diverse from all the beasts that were before it, Daniel 7:7. I will now quote from Howard B. Rand’s book, Study In Revelation, page 44:
“Upon the ruins of the ancient Roman Empire there arose, gradually, a new and different type of Empire, which became all the more powerful because it claimed control over the souls of men as well as their bodies, and extended its dominion beyond this life into the grave. History has amply verified these facts and that the Popes claimed the right to temporal power, taking the place of the Caesars, while the Eternal City under pagan Rome became the Eternal City under Papal control. How apt is the description of her supporter as named by John, Hell. This is Hades or the abode of the dead, for through the doctrine of Purgatory, the church was able to hold supremacy and exercise tremendous power over her followers not only in this life, but beyond through the fear of future suffering in Purgatory.”
Then quoting on page 49 from this same book: “CHURCH OVER STATE: Pope Agapetus, in a dispute with Justinian the Emperor of the East, won his point and the Emperor yielded to the Pope. The head of the Church had triumphed over the head of the government. This was 536 A.D. A Church council assembled at Constantinople this same year and informed the government, as a servant of the Church, that an edict be issued ordering a decision of the council executed. This was done and thus Church and State became united. Persecutions followed, which the Church dictated and the State supported. One thousand two hundred and sixty years of cruel torture and destruction now followed, resulting in nearly a hundred million dying violent deaths.”
538 A.D. TO 1798 A.D. = 1,260 YEARS, NOT 3½ YEARS
Let’s go back to our original Scripture of Daniel 7:24-25 and pick up the sentence concerning this period of time: “and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.”
This sentence is used by futurists as a basis for their postulation of a future three and one half year tribulation period, when a so-called Antichrist will set up his kingdom after a so-called rapture. Some futurists call for a seven year tribulation period. As I told you before, the futurist theory was dreamed up by a Spanish Jesuit priest by the name of Ribera, about 1580 A.D., and the teaching had never been heard of before that time. It has a long and sordid history, and I don’t have space here to go into much detail on the subject. But this portion of Scripture quoted immediately above is one of the basic passages they use, out of context, to support their theory. By showing you the true historical meaning of this passage, I hope to drive a nail into the coffin of this doctrine so it will stay dead for a long time. What could be more of a tribulation than 1,260 years and 100,000,000 violent deaths, mostly of our people? Some estimate as low as 60 million, but it is still a lot of people. This is the legacy of Justinian and his law code, along with the Universal Church. [This concludes that portion of Lesson # 12.]
EXAMPLE OF LACK OF INSIGHT ON DANIEL 7:20-26
Now that we have covered this prophecy of Daniel 7, let’s take a look at some comments from The Bible Knowledge Commentary on this passage found in vol. 1, page 1355. While there are some positive remarks by this source, other statements are deficient, lacking any understanding. As I quote an example here, compare it with the evidence:
“The amillenarian view that the ‘little horn’ has already appeared sometime in the past (but since Christ’s First Advent) is wrong because: (a) no such ruler has attained worldwide status (7:23), (b) no such ruler has subdued 3 of 10 kings who were ruling at once (v. 24), (c) no such ruler has persecuted Israel (v. 21) for three and one-half years (v. 25), and (d) no such ruler has been destroyed forever (v. 26) by Christ’s return. Nor could this ‘little horn’ be the Roman Catholic papacy because: (a) the ‘little horn’ is a king, not a pope, (b) the papacy’s power has not been limited to three and one-half years, (c) the papacy has not concentrated on persecuting the nation Israel, and (d) the papacy has not been destroyed by the return of Christ to the earth.”
The answers to these blatantly false statements by The Bible Knowledge Commentary, edited by John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck of the Dallas Seminary Faculty are: Yes, the “little horn” of Daniel 7:8 did appear in the past, represented by Justinian, and continued through the Roman Catholic papal system! Yes, the “little horn” did attain worldwide status in the prophesied Roman world! Yes, Justinian did subdue 3 out of 10 kings! Yes, the Roman Catholic papal system did persecute Israelites of Anglo-Saxon and European descent! Yes, that prophecy was for a prophetic 3 ½ years, or 1260 actual years! Yes, that papal ruler lost his power in 1798 A.D., and will be totally destroyed at the Second Advent! Yes, the papacy represents the “little horn” of Daniel 7:8! Yes, the papacy’s power did continue for a prophetic 3 ½ years or 1260 actual years! Yes, the papacy did concentrate on persecuting European, Anglo-Saxon and related “Israelites” during that period! And, Yes, while the papacy did lose its ruling power, it will finally be totally destroyed at Messiah’s Second Advent!
How true is Matthew 15:14 and Luke 6:39, that if the blind lead the blind, both will fall in the proverbial ditch. Not only are there blind leaders of the blind in the Jew-deo-unchristian churches, but there are blind leaders of the blind in the Israel Identity movement. A good example of blind leaders leading the blind in Israel Identity are those who deny the Two Seedline message of Genesis 3:15. That puts the responsibility for the truth squarely upon ourselves, for Scripture implores us to “... study to show thyself approved ...”, 2 Timothy 2:15.