Watchman's Teaching Letter #163 November 2011

This is my one hundred and sixty-third monthly teaching letter and continues my fourteenth year of publication. Again, I am going to have to interrupt my series The Greatest Love Story Ever Told, which I started with WTL #137, giving a general overview, and have been expanding it in greater detail in seven stages as follows: (1) the courtship, (2) the marriage, (3) the honeymoon, (4) the estrangement, (5) the divorce, (6) the reconciliation, and (7) the remarriage. As you will remember, I got sidetracked from the subject of Israel’s honeymoon with her Husband, Yahweh, and because of the seriousness of the lies that are being circulated about Queen Charlotte of England (who was the wife of King George III), I find it my Christian duty to set the record straight! I will repeat here two lines of a poem that was written with a false premise to ridicule Queen Charlotte upon her marriage to George III, which I also quoted in WTL #162:

Descended from the warlike Vandal race,

She still preserves that title in her face’ ....”

While the writer does not have a Christian Israel Identity perspective, and therefore does not have a thorough understanding of Germanic origins, let’s determine whether or not the Vandals were negroid. From (All needed editing on the following essay, especially where the author wrongly declares the Alans to be non-German will be corrected in [ ] ):

History of the Vandals: by Brian Adam (‘Gaiseric’)

It’s not known to many people today that [a]long time ago the Vandal warriors, a [White] Germanic tribe, once established a kingdom in North Africa as their base for raiding the Mediterranean Sea, much like the Vikings. Like the Goths and [White] Attila’s Huns, the [White] Vandals helped bring about the Roman Empire’s decline.

Who were the Vandals?: Vandal was a [White] Germanic people belonging to the family of East Germans. The term ‘Vandilii’ is used by Tacitus in his Germania. They settled between the Elbe and Vistula. At the time of the Marcomannic War (166-181 AD) they lived in what is now Silesia. During the 3rd century when the Roman Empire was in crisis with many powerful enemies at their borders, the Vandals and their ally Sarmatians did invade the Roman territory along upper Rhine river in AD 270. About AD 271 AD, the Roman Emperor Aurelian was obliged to protect the middle course of the Danube against them. In AD 330 they were granted lands in Pannonia on the right bank of the Danube by Constantine the Great. Vandals accepted Arian Christianity during the reign of Emperor Valens in the AD 360’s. Before this, there is mention of two branches of the Vandal Confederacy: the Siling Vandals in the northwest and the Asding Vandals in the south.

Breach of the Roman Frontier in AD 406: The kingdom of the Alans ([White] Germanic descendants of the Scyths) that lay to the east side of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in south Russia, was the first of the Hun conquest driving into Europe from Central Asia. Some of the [Germanic]-Alans escaped westward and the rest fell under the Hun rule. The Great Ostrogothic Kingdom that covers the area between [the] Baltic and Black Seas under powerful King Ermanarich, fought the Huns once they appeared in eastern Europe and invaded their land in [the] 370’s. The Ostrogothic cavalry was humiliated by the faster-moving Huns, whose mounted archers destroyed every force Ermanarich sent against them. The fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom and death of Ermanarich in South Russia, the related Gothic clans (later know[n] as Visigoths) grew fearful of the Hunnic warriors and decided to appeal to Rome to grant them refuge. The Romans gave them permission to cross the river Danube into Roman territory, once they had suffered defeat by the Huns. Many Goths however followed them into Roman territory without such permission. Other Germanic tribes such as Gepids, Rugians who were not under the Ostrogothic Kingdom, were also defeated and subjugated by the Huns. Worried that they would be next, the Asding Vandals began to stir. By [the] early fifth century, closely pursued by the Huns, the two branches of Vandals (Siling and Asding) and other [White] Germanic tribes: Suebi (once called the Marcomanni and Quadi), Alamanns, Burgundians and a clan of Alans ([White]-Germans, displaced from the Caucasus) went on the move. There was a large number of barbarians that (lying in wait) across the river Rhine, one cold and frozen night in December, AD 406. They surprised the Romans and breached the Frontier at Mainz. The Roman defences would not stop them pouring into Gaul for months. The border had been weakened as a year previous the Roman General Flavius Stilicho (his background was Vandal) had been forced to collect some Roman soldiers posted along the Rhine in order to defend Rome from the Goth King Alaric and his army. With the Roman frontier breached, many hundreds of thousands of barbarians settled in Gaul; various barbarian bands roamed unchecked across large parts of Gaul for two and [a] half years. It was the [worse] ravaging of Gaul than ever before. Finally the two branches of the Vandals (Siling and Asding), as well as the Suebi and [Germanic]-Alans, crossed the Pyrenees into Spain after being defeated by the Franks in battle and being harassed by the Goths (Visigoths). Within two years of being in Spain, the various conquering tribes divid[ed] up their spoils, apparently by lot; the Siling Vandals and [the Germanic]-Alans taking the richest area, Baetica in the south, while the Asdings and Suebi took the north – Galicia.

Gunderic, the Vandal King up to AD 428: During the late AD 410’s and early 420[’s,] the Romans tried to evict the Siling Vandals and [Germanic]-Alans from southern Spain. To this end they employed the Visigoths to drive the Silings and [Germanic]-Alans out. In fact they finally succeeded in ruining them, though the Romans feared the Visigoths becoming too powerful and offered them to settle in southeast Gaul in AD 418. The Asding Vandals moved south to rejoin their kindred and the joint kingdom proved strong enough to be viable, becoming a Vandal Kingdom. Gunderic was their leader since sometime in the 410’s. This left the Suebi Kingdom in control of the northwest of Spain. When the [Germanic]-Alans lost their leader Ataces, with almost all his army, in battle against Vallia the King of the Visigoths 419 AD, the remainder of these [Germanic]-Alans subjected themselves to Gunderic, King of the Vandals in Baetica, who therefore became King of the Vandals and [the Germanic]-Alans.

At the beginning of the 420’s, the Vandals won a great victory against a Romano-Gothic army led by Castinus. This helped them to further enrich themselves by raiding in Mauritania and the Balearic Islands. Many Roman ports in Spain were captured, including many of [the] galleys within them, and so the Vandals became the first Teutonic people to develop a Mediterranean navy [in modern times].

Gaiseric, The Vandal King, AD 428-477: King Gunderic died and was succeed by his half-brother, a *bastard named Gaiseric (his mother being an unknown concubine of the Vandal King). The name, of which there are various spellings (also Geiseric and Genseric), means the ‘Caesar King’. He was a more clever and shrewd diplomat, as well as military leader (excellently trained in warfare), than any Vandal leader before or after him. He led his Vandals to repulse the imperial offensives and gave gifts to Attila the Hun for attacking the Romans and Visigoths in the 440’s-450’s. He was undisputed King of the Vandals and [Germanic]-Alans in AD 428. [*“bastard”, at the time was used even of Whites with parents of differing tribes. CAE]

“Boniface’s Crisis in North Africa: In about 428 AD, Boniface (warlord), Count of North Africa, controlled six whole provinces. He suffered serious problems as a governor, among them legal disputes, Christianity (disappointing St. Augustine by marrying an Arian), and bad relations with [White] Moorish tribesmen. More so, Roman General Flavius Aetius saw Boniface as a rival. Aetius persuaded Empress Placidia, who acted as regent for her son, the future Emperor Valentinian III, that Boniface was disloyal to her and had tyrannical aspirations for himself in North Africa. Further, she was advised to summon Boniface in order to assure his future loyalty. So she sent word to Boniface to come to the imperial court at Ravenna to explain his failure in north Africa. Aetius secretly sent Boniface a private message advising him that Placidia was planning a plot against his life. Aetius was pleased to see his plan succeed as Boniface declined to appear at the court and was subsequently accused of treason and declared a rebel.

Placidia sent the imperial army to arrest Boniface but he managed to repulse them. Then the Vandals crossed the straits of Gibraltar, suddenly arriving in North Africa and began to raid. Placidia decided to send her army to re-attempt arresting Boniface. Meanwhile, Aetius’ fraud was discovered by Boniface, who sent his friend to see the empress to sue for peace in order to allow him to deal with the Vandal raiders.

The Invasion of Africa: Why did the Vandals come into Africa? Had it been arranged with Boniface or was it just a normal invasion? It still remains a mystery to this day. We have two different stories below: (1) King Gaiseric was invited into Africa by a rebellious Boniface who was keen to recruit their support against the army of empress Placidia. They were offered lands in north Africa. After Aetius’ fraud was discovered Boniface appealed [to] King Gaiseric to turn home. But it was too late as King Gaiseric was fully aware that Boniface was weakened by the civil war with the empress, and so he landed in North Africa and turned against Boniface. (2) The other story states that King Gaiseric had suffered a severe fall from his horse which left him permanently lame. From that point on he experienced trouble riding and hence sought to satisfy his need for excitement and raiding by seaborne expeditions. Soon the Vandal fleet grew too strong for the Roman navy and raided the coasts of the western Mediterranean Sea. Gaiseric knew that the North African provinces were the chief suppliers of grain and oil to the Empire and decided to conquer them.

King Gaiseric landed [in] North Africa with over 80,000 men, including the [Germanic]-Alans, Roman-Spaniards, former slaves and several Germanic tribesmen with their families. They seized lands from the local Berbers and some Romans near Tingi (Tangier). From there they overran the country and spread all over Mauritania. There was no limit to their savage atrocities and cruelties. Everything within their reach was laid waste, with looting, murders, tortures of all kinds, brigandry, and countless other unspeakable crimes, without any mercy to men, women, children, priests and ministers of god. Also, they destroyed church buildings. As the Vandals were Arians, [they] made the war with the Catholic Romans especially bitter. The armies of Gaiseric defeated Boniface in battle and went on the rampage, forcing Boniface to retreat to [the] fortified coastal town of Hippo Regius, now Bona.

14 Months of Resistance: All the refugees were crowded into the walled town of Hippo Regius before Gaiseric came. He realised [he was] unable to capture the town in a direct assault, so he laid siege. Boniface and his people saw the Vandal siegeworks grow longer and stronger, depriving them even of their sea links. St. Augustine and his priests prayed together for a hasty relief, strengthening the resolve of the citizens against the Arians. Three months into the siege of Hippo Regius, St. Augustine died on August 28th, AD 430. Boniface was the one to be blamed for St. Augustine’s death. Desperately [seeking] to be rescued by the empire, Boniface sent messengers who did break through the Vandal lines, but for months they heard nothing from Constantinople. After 14 months, hunger and disease were ravaging the Vandals as much as the besieged inhabitants of Hippo Regius. News reached Gaiseric’s camp [that] Constantinople had responded [by] sending a powerful imperial fleet that brought an army under the leadership of Aspar and landed at Carthage, which still remained in Roman hands. Boniface joined forces with Aspar and took the field a second time against the Vandals but was completely routed. Unable to defeat the Vandals, he called for negotiations. Gaiseric decided to relax the siege and entered into negotiations. Gaiseric still maintained the upper hand and dictated terms. Boniface was allowed out of Hippo Regius with his bodyguard, [and] families were permitted to leave. Having failed to stop the Vandals, Boniface handed power to Aspar and sailed to Italy to see empress Placida, who invested him with the office of Magister Militum. General Aetius was furious. Boniface died from a wound he received in his victorious battle against Aetius and his army in AD 432.

Improved Relations: General Aspar established better relations with Gaiseric, as Aspar was an Alan by birth and Gaiseric’s official title was ‘King of the Vandals and [Germanic]-Alans’. They exchanged gifts and ambassadors. Hippo Regius became the Vandal city while Aspar maintained imperial authority in Carthage. Gaiseric had won for his people an independent kingdom in North Africa, the first and only assault on this rich province by Germanic Barbarians.

Arians vs Catholics in North Africa: The Vandals treated the Catholics more harshly than other Germanic tribes. Catholic communities were disolved and any priests refusing to perform the Arian service were banished or enslaved for decades. It is said of Gaiseric himself that he was originally a Catholic and had changed to Arianism before coming to North Africa.

Surprise Capture of Carthage: Peace was made between the Romans and Vandals as the division of the coastline was officially acknowledged in AD 435. However, Hippo Regius was an excellent port for expeditions, [and] all raiders [paid] a proportion of their booty to Gaiseric. His raiders attacked the coasts of Sicily and sacked some cities. Since Aspar had returned to Constantinople in 434 AD, the Carthaginian defences appear to have been weak. Gaiseric, interested in Carthage’s port with its many ships and galleys anchored there, sought to make it another Vandal city. His son Huneric who was held by the court at Ravenna as hostage of peace [but] was soon released and returned home, where he led his army in a surprise attack on Carthage on 19th October, AD 439 (according to Hydatius, Gaiseric captured it by trickery). As Carthage fell into Gaiseric’s hand, to celebrate the achievement, the Vandals made 439 the first year of a new calendar.

Fall of Carthage to the Vandals aggrieved the western and eastern empire[s], as there was a large number of galleys and great shipyards in Carthage, creating the Vandal fleet as the equal to the joint navy of the two empires. That the empire ever allowed for so many galleys to be left in Carthage’s port while the Vandals were so close by, must be one of the most monumental blunders of it’s history. For the first time in nearly 6 centuries, Carthage became the greatest danger to Rome since the Punic Wars.

Wars: In the spring of 440 AD, a vast fleet manned by Vandals and their allies ([Germanic]-Alans, Goths, Romano-Barbarians, and [White] *Moors) set out from Carthage for Sicily, the principal supplier of oil and grain to Italy after the loss of North Africa. All the coastal towns were looted and Palermo besieged. Heavily laden ships returned to the court of Gaiseric. The powerful eastern imperial fleet responded by sailing into Sicilian waters in 441 AD, taking the Vandals by surprise. This was under the command of the Romano-Goth Areobindus. But a major invasion of the Balkans by the Huns, and the threat of a Persian attack, forced him to take his fleet back home. After this Gaiseric allowed his fleets to continue plundering throughout the western Mediterranean Sea. [White Moors, descendants of former Libyan-Phoenicians. CAE]

“Arrangement of a Marriage to make Peace: There was a marriage proposal for Eudocia, daughter of the western emperor Valentinian and King Gaiseric’s son Huneric. It was a great honour for the Barbarian leader. However, whose idea was it? It seems possible that General Aetius, who became chief defender of the western empire, realised the impossibility of defeating the Vandals in battle. From another point of view, it could be that emperor Valentinian desired a powerful alliance with a barbarian force that would counter-balance the considerable power of Aetius with his [White] Huns and Goths. Whoever’s idea it was, the political result must have seemed promising to both sides, for it led to King Gaiseric’s first major political blunder.

Huneric was already married to a Visigoth princess when the imperial offer of marriage arrived. King Gaiseric decided [to] free his son from such prior obligations by allowing the poor Visigoth princess to be accused of trying to poison him. Her ears and nose were cut off and she was sent back to her father Theoderic, the Visigothic King, in Toulouse, Gaul. [This] enraged King Theoderic and he swore revenge, making Vandals and Visigoths enemies. But King Gaiseric sat back and enjoyed the fruits of his African estates, as there was little chance of serious conflict between his kingdom and the empire of the Visigoths.

Sack of Rome AD 455: In 454, Emperor Valentinian murdered Aetius. The [following] year Valentinian was stabbed to death by Aetius’s follower. The story goes that Eudoxia, the widow of the emperor, was then forced to marry Maximus against her will. Petronius Maximus was generally believed to have been the grandson of the usurper Maximus who had been crushed by Theodosius the Great. He had been Consul at age 38 and became Praetorian Prefect of Italy six years later. He became emperor of the West Empire after Valentinian’s death.

The widow Eudoxia knew that an appeal to Constantinople would have little chance of being answered. So she decided to write to Gaiseric, inviting him to take possession of Rome. However, no invitation was needed. Gaiseric’s peace treaty had been with Aetius and Valentinian. Now they were dead and so was the treaty. Emperor Maximus, who hurried to get his son married to Eudoxia instead of Huneric, to whom she was long since promised, angered Gaiseric. The Vandal fleet had been built up for the last ten years and now awaited a major expedition.

“A major Vandal fleet left Carthage for Rome. Gaiseric and his nobles expected to clash with the imperial fleet somewhere at sea, though when they sailed along the coast of Italy they found themselves unopposed and sighted the port of Rome, Ostia, on 31 May, 455. The Romans were already terrified, sending their wives and daughters away to safety. The gates of Rome couldn’t cope with the number of people seeking to flee. Emperor Maximus had no chance to raise his army in defence of his capital and decided to ride out of Rome. Unfortunately for him, an angry Roman crowd recognised him and stoned him to death. This emperor had reigned for just 70 days. Three days after Maximus’ death, unopposed, King Gaiseric stepped ashore at Ostia

For the fourth time in less than half a century, a barbarian stood at the gates of Rome. Fearing for the safety of Rome, Pope Leo I decided to speak with the leader of the barbarians on the behalf of his city. He was met by King Gaiseric and persuaded him not to burn and slaughter. Gaiseric decided to give certain promises: there would be no killing, no torturing to discover the location of hidden treasure and no destruction of buildings, public or private. On these terms the gates of Rome were wide open to him, allowing him to enter the city with no resistance. The Vandals plundered for two weeks. While Gaiseric stayed at the Imperial palace, his men took all the treasures, statues, Solomon’s Temple (menorah), even part of the gilded roof of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was removed. Yet his greatest prize were Empress Eudoxia, her two daughters, Eudocia and Placidia, and Gaudentius, the son of Aetius. Everything was carted to Ostia, loaded into the waiting ships, from where he and his men departed in good order and sailed back to their stronghold in North Africa. The people of Rome and its buildings were left unharmed (if indeed this story was true).

Life at Home: According to one book, Gaiseric’s position among his own people was unassailable. His overwhelming success encouraged autocratic power, as did a conspiracy among some Vandal lords, which was bloodily suppressed. In response, Gaiseric favoured government in which officials replaced the old tribal aristocracy, by his patronage and not their birth right. This allowed Gaiseric to employ the talents of Romans and non-Vandals. Later, he passed a law in which succession to his throne was restricted to the royal family and not subject to the ancient Germanic custom of election. Such was his authority that Gaiseric’s will was accepted with little struggle.

According to Procopius in the same book, Gaiseric organised his warriors into 80 companies commanded by captains called chiliarchs, which means leaders of 1,000. Most of them were Vandals and [Germanic]-Alans, but increasingly, as time passed and many of them retired to the good life, some *black Moorish tribesmen filled in. They were used as seaborne raiding parties while the Vandals waited in the galleys for the spoils to be brought up. The Moorish kingdoms gave Gaiseric few problems. “Gaiseric arms my own flesh against me” Sidonius wrote [in] a poem, “I am being cruelly torn under his authority by the prowess of my own”. [* That Moors were black is this writer’s absolutely mistaken assumption. For biased religious reasons, the author of this article refused to accept the Germanic Moors as White! CAE]

“Each year after the sacking of Rome, the Vandals and allies continued to return to Sicily and the coasts of southern Italy for more plunder. A new emperor, Avitus, unable to stop them [from] doing this, appealed to Constantinople for help but would not trust General Aspar, [after] his old relations with Gaiseric, as [a Germanic]-Alan and an Arian. He instead decided to call General Ricimer, half Suevian, half Goth, for help. Ricimer had a couple of successes against the Vandal fleets but still proved unable to end the Vandal raids.

Majorian’s North African Expedition: Majorian was born early in the fifth century. His grandfather had served Emperor Theodosius I as ‘Master of Soldiers’, and his father had been treasurer to Aetius. He was officer to Aetius but later was dismissed by Aetius due to his wife’s dislike of him. He became emperor of the western Empire in April 457. First he suffered conflicts with his rival Romans and the Goths in Gaul. After he gained control of the situation he felt able to deal with the Vandals, who still raided the western Mediterranean from their stronghold in North Africa.

First, he drove the Vandal raiding force out of Campania in Italy in circa AD 459. Then he organised the building of a great fleet and the recruiting of a mighty army. In France, he obtained recognition from the Visigoths and Burgundians, many of whom joined the Suevi, [White]-Huns, [Germanic]-Alans and other barbarians forming his army. In AD 460, he marched the army to Carthago Nova (Cartagena) in Spain. Realising the imperial army and fleet too strong for the Vandals, Gaiseric gained information of Majorian’s movements. He suggested a treaty, but emperor Majorian refused. Gaiseric decided to instruct his [White] Moorish warriors to lay waste [to] Mauretania and poison the wells in order to hinder the Roman army advance. Marjorian’s fleet was being prepared to lead an offensive but the Vandals captured them in their port by a surprise. With both advances on land and sea devastated, Marjorian was forced into peace talks and into recognising Gaiseric as king of North Africa and confirming his mastery over the western Mediterranean.

With the expedition a failure, Ricimer, the head of the military was furious and saw his emperor dealing with Gaiseric as shameful. And so Ricimer, who had nominated Marjorian as western Emperor, now turned against him. Marjorian was captured in the mutiny (likely being set up by Ricimer). He was to end his reign in AD 461, either by illness or murder.

Raids continue: The accession of a new western emperor in AD 461 gave Gaiseric the excuse to break all previous treaties and resume his raiding of Sicily and Italy. The Vandals planned their attacks well, ensuring there were never any Roman troops or navies present. Meanwhile, the Romans could not possibl[y] be everywhere at the same time. Every year, the [White]-Vandals grew ever more daring and ever more rapacious. Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands all fell into Gaiseric’s hands.

Great Expedition of 468: In 468, emperor Leo decided to end the Vandal raiding by launching an expedition to crush them. It was the most expensive expedition ever in history, though [it] was a failure and brought about the end of [the] western Roman Empire 8 years later.

A) Outrages: By AD 467 Gaiseric and his raiders went too far. It might not have been his fault, but the greedy actions of a rogue Vandal pirate. A raid on southern Greece violated territory of the Eastern Empire. [The] Eastern emperor Leo was outraged. He decided to join forces with the Western Empire against the Vandals, by nominating Anthemius as Western emperor. First Anthemius had to ally himself with Ricimer by marrying his daughter Alypia to him. He also made himself popular in Rome as he brought about the end of the hostilities between the Eastern and Western empire.

B) Spending on Expedition: Poor emperor Leo had to pour 65,000 pounds of gold and 700 pounds of silver into the equipment of over 1,100 ships and 100,000 soldiers and sailors. He had collected a fleet of ships from the whole of the eastern Mediterranean. It was the greatest fleet ever sent against the Vandals, enough to destroy the Vandal Kingdom and capture Gaiseric. It brought Leo near to bankruptcy. [several typos throughout by author, which I have corrected.]

C) Commanders: Regarding who should be at the head of the expedition, Leo was persuaded by his wife and General Aspar to put General Basiliscus in charge, the brother of Leo’s wife. In AD 468, the fleet sailed from Constantinople into [the] Mediterranean Sea and was joined by the Italian fleet under Marcellinus. Ricimer was angered that the Western emperor Anthemius had chosen Marcellinus as the commander of the Western fleet, for he was Ricimer’s foremost enemy. General Heracleius of [the] Eastern army obtained auxiliaries in Egypt and then sailed for Tripoli, where he would disembark and march by land to Carthage.

D) Battle on Land and Sea: Alerted by the Vandal scouts of the empire’s movements, Gaiseric decided to repulse them by using his Vandal fleets. However, Marcellinus’ Western fleet succeeded in Sardinia over the Vandal fleet and took control of [the] island. About 500 Vandal galleys confronted Basiliscus’ fleet in the Sicilian waters. This battle, too, ended with a major victory for Basiliscus, Gaiseric losing 340 galleys.

“Sea battles were rare in the 5th century and something that Vandals avoided whenever possible. The classic ram and board warfare of the ancient Mediterranean still pertained. But greater emphasis was placed on firepower, as the proliferation of cataphract-type ships suggests. A hail of archery preceded any encounter. To this was added the shot of catapults and ballistae, their stones and iron weights intended to hole a galley. I’m not sure if there was widespread use of Greek Fire in the 5th century, a feared Byzantine weapon. Like Carthaginian General Hannibal Barca using clay pots of snakes, both sides us[ed] clay pots of quicklime, serpents and scorpions to throw into [the] enemy[’s] galley to panic them.

Heracleius landed with a considerable force in Tripoli, confronting a Vandal army along the Libyan coast. The Vandal warriors in Gaiseric’s army were all quality horsemen who fought with sword and spear when in close combat. Their [White]-Moorish allies in the centre, rose on camel back, and if the fighting was to be an aggressive, skirmishing attack, they remained in the saddle. It was [an] advantage to the [White]-Moors to stand in a phalanx in which they stood with spears, javelin, and shields amid the legs of their animals, enemy horsemen unfamiliar with the sight and smell of Moorish camels could be thrown into disorder. They marched against Heracleius but his army, which included Hun horse-archers, were little effected. [White]-Moorish javelin showers, the camel phalanx and the powerful Vandal horsemen failed to break Heracleius’ advance. This allowed Heracleius to capture several towns and to confidently continue his march towards Carthage.

E) Three Roman columns close in on King Gaiseric: Gaiseric was at his palace fearing for his own survival, as well as for that of his kingdom, as all the three enemy forces closed in on him. However, the Vandal scouts informed him of Basiliscus and his fleet being anchored at the Promontorium Mercurii, now Cape Bon, not far from Carthage (45 miles). It is still a mystery today [why] this fleet had not just sailed into the port of Carthage and taken it by surprise. But Basiliscus settled down there and showed no inclination to go further. Gaiseric called for a council of war over what the Vandals should do. Now was the time for Gaiseric’s famous cunning. He sent ambassadors to commander Basiliscus asking for a cease fire and promising Basiliscus great wealth. And according to some chroniclers the latter may well have achieved this brief armistice. Basiliscus and several of [his] generals preferring a bloodless victory were only too ready to agree.

F) The Gaiseric Design: Gaiseric spent the [next] five days preparing his old war galleys, filling them with brushwood and pots of oil. On the fifth day they were ready, waiting for dark to come. When the wind rose and the moon was obscured by cloud, the old galleys were towed out. Against the black sky, the Vandals reached Cape Bon and started to fire the galleys. Roman guards observed fire darting to and from ships. Too late, the alarm was sounded. The fire galleys sailed into the pack of imperial ships which was too crowded, leaving no room for ships to manouvre. The flagship, where Basilsicus stayed at, was well away from danger. The wind drove the fire ships into the Roman fleet, throwing it into confusion. The noise of the wind and the crackling flames [were] mingled with the cries of the soldiers and sailors as they shouted commands to one another, using long poles to push off the fire galleys as well as each other’s galleys. The Vandal fleet [was] behind the advancing fire galleys. They rammed the imperial galleys, sinking them. But there were some brave Romans in this struggle, including General John, who was a general under Basiliscus. When his ship was surrounded by the Vandals and was being boarded, he stood on the deck and, turning from side to side, he kept killing heaps of the enemy. Finally, once his ship was captured, he assured that much of the valuable Roman equipment had been thrown into the sea. Genzon, the son of Gaiseric boarded John’s ship. He offered a promise of safety, but John refused to fall into the hands of dogs and threw himself into the sea wearing his armour. The galleys of the Roman fleet burned throughout the night.

By morning, Basiliscus had lost more than half his fleet that anchored off Cape Bon. The surviving galleys sailed back to Sicily, harassed all the way by [White]-Moorish pirates. Another imperial fleet under Marcellinus, who was at Sardinia, might have saved the situation. But Marcellinus was assassinated by either a Vandal agent or a plot by Ricimer. Any further expeditions against [the] Vandal kingdom were abandoned. The army of Heracleius heard the bad news and decided to march back. The empire’s campaign was a complete disaster and Gaiseric was the strong man of the Mediterranean ....”

Because I could find little data in my vast library on this subject; and that in scattered articles, I turned to the Internet and found this less-than-perfect work that incorrectly cited the Alans as being “non-Germanic”, but it does give us a perspective of the movements of the “divorced” and “put away” and “punished” Israelite people consisting of twelve tribes. So I decided to use it, while editing out the serious errors.

It may come as a surprise that the Huns were White Israelites, for they helped fulfill the prophecy at Daniel 2:42-45, (the toes representing the “mingled seed” within the ten Roman provinces), which only true Israelites (i.e., the “kingdom” of verse 44) were to fulfill! Vandal-Germanic-Israelite history, to whom Queen Charlotte of England belonged, will be continued in the next lesson.