Watchman's Teaching Letter #180 April 2013

This is my one hundred and eightieth monthly teaching letter and completes my fifteenth year of publication. Since WTL #137, I have been continuing a series entitled The Greatest Love Story Ever Told and have been expanding on its seven stages ever since: (1) the courtship, (2) the marriage, (3) the honeymoon, (4) the estrangement, (5) the divorce, (6) the reconciliation, and (7) the remarriage.


THE ESTRANGEMENT (of Benjamin) continued:

With this issue, on the subject of the tribe of Benjamin, we’ll continue where we left off in WTL #179. There really is more to it than a casual once-over reading can comprehend. I ended WTL #179 thusly:

What really happened in 1917-1918 was that the British drove the Turks out of Palestine coming under the rule of king George VI, a bona fide descendant house of David. Therefore, neither Balfour, President Truman, nor the UN have any Biblical lawful authority to grant Palestine to the Canaanite-Edomite-jews! I will now repeat what I have written before in other papers somewhat edited:

Once we perceive the relevance of 1917 in this chain of events, we will see clearly how all this fits together (for the tribe of Benjamin). We must first take into consideration that all the tribes of Israel were given a “seven times” punishment period, or 2,520 years. As each tribe was taken into captivity at different dates, therefore each individual tribe’s punishment ended in a corresponding manner at the end of its 2,520 years, (Judaea & Jerusalem no exception). The starting date for Jerusalem’s 2,520 years of punishment was November/ December 604 B.C., and is called “the times of the Gentiles” in Luke 21:24. (And has no relevance to the converso Edomite-jews.) If one will check the history of Jerusalem from 604 B.C., he will find Jerusalem was continually under foreign powers until 1917 A.D., for a total of 2,520 years, when Palestine became a British Mandate under King George VI, a bona fide descendant of David. 1917 was the year that General Allenby captured Palestine and entered Jerusalem with true Israelite soldiers from Britain, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and a few minor contingents of non-Israelites from India, Egypt, Singapore, Hong Kong and the West Indies (As Birds Flying by Andrew Adams, page 42, and caution is advised on this source). King George VI lived until 1952, long enough to make a decree on Palestine which has never been countermanded by Queen Elizabeth II.

For documentation on King George VI’s decision concerning Palestine, I will now quote from the book Understanding The Dead Sea Scrolls, chapter 1, by Harry Thomas Frank, page 8: “His Majesty’s Foreign Office had somewhat irresponsibly decided that since the problem of Palestine could not be solved by reason they would withdraw, leaving the two sides to decide the issue by blood.”

Another unusual source that correlates the 2,520 years as the “times of the Gentiles”, similar to the book As Birds Flying, is the Jehovah’s Witnesses’ book, Babylon The Great Has Fallen! They have some things correct on pages 179-180, (though caution is recommended from that source): “But in a symbolic or prophetic year, the number of days is fixed at the unchanging number of 360, and each day thereof stands for a whole year. ‘A day for a year, a day for a year.’ – Numbers 14:34; Ezekiel 4:6.

In the prophetic book of Revelation a thousand two hundred and sixty days are spoken of as being equal to a ‘time and times and half a time’, or three and a half times. (Revelation 12:6, 14) If we divide three and a half (3.5) into a thousand two hundred and sixty days, it gives us three hundred and sixty (360) days to a ‘time.’

Accordingly, a symbolic or prophetic ‘time’ would Scripturally equal three hundred and sixty (360) years. If, now, three and a half symbolic ‘times’ amounted to 1,260 symbolic days, that is to say, 1,260 years, then twice three and a half (or seven) symbolic ‘times’ would be twice 1,260 years, that is to say, 2,520 years. Thus the ‘seven times’ that are mentioned in Daniel 4:16, 23, 25, 32 in connection with the tree dream would stand for two thousand five hundred and twenty literal years ... In the fulfillment of the greater prophetic meaning, the ‘seven times’ or 2,520 years began to count when Jehovah God let go the world domination as represented by his typical kingdom on earth ... By count, then, those Gentile Times, those ‘appointed times of the [non-Israel] nations’ ... would end 2,520 years ... about ... 1914.”

They’re three years off on their arithmetic, but one can see what is meant by the “times of the gentiles”, and for 2,520 years (the land of) Judaea was ruled by foreign powers. As we have already noted, something important happened in 1917, when Jerusalem was delivered to the British after the “seven times.”


Some people are under the delusion that because the United Nations recognized the establishment of the counterfeit so-called “State of Israeli”, at the behest of Harry Truman, that that makes them a bona fide nation of the world. Nothing could be further from the truth. Lawfully, Palestine came under British rule under the British Mandate, and remains that way today in Yahweh’s sight. That means we have two kinds of people in that area today; squatters and trespassers. On December 11, 1917, when General Allenby entered Jerusalem, after the Turks had evacuated the area and the Mayor of Jerusalem presented a letter of surrender, that completely and Lawfully settled the matter to our present day.

To show that the British government was Lawfully in control, the following documentation is found in Behind The Balfour Declaration by Robert John, pages 32 & 74: “Letter of November 2, 1917 – the ‘Balfour Declaration’ – from the Foreign Secretary, A.J. Balfour, to the head of the Rothschild banking family, pledging the support of the British Government for the idea of a Jewish National Home in Palestine.” In addition to that letter, an almost word-for-word similar draft was cabled by Balfour to [Colonel] House in Washington on 14 October, but with the extra passage shown here in brackets: “... Dear Lord Rothschild, ... I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty’s Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet ... ‘His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people [race], and will use its best endeavours to facilitate achievement of this object; it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country [by such Jews who are fully contented with their existing nationality and citizenship]’. ... I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.”

Let’s review the directives set forth by His Majesty’s Government by the above letter and cable, along with the one previously cited. Both were issued in 1917, one October 14th and the other November 2nd. The first stipulation stated: “it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine.” The second condition being: “the rights and political status enjoyed in any other country [by such Jews who are fully contented with their existing nationality and citizenship].” Now have those “Jews” who eventually settled in Palestine lived up to those Lawful directives? All you have to do is watch television and you can observe they are breaking these regulations on a daily basis. After about thirty years of this defiant behavior, His Majesty’s Government issued another Lawful directive, which I cited before and will repeat here, from the book Understanding The Dead Sea Scrolls, edited by Hershel Shanks, chapter 1, by Harry Thomas Frank, page 8: “His Majesty’s Foreign Office had somewhat irresponsibly decided that since the problem of Palestine could not be solved by reason they would withdraw, leaving the two sides to decide the issue by blood.” I do not agree that this was an “irresponsible” decision on the part of His Majesty’s Government, but rather a very rational one! Again, all you have to do is watch television and you can observe this directive continually being carried out on a daily basis! Unless Queen Elizabeth II repeals it, it will remain in effect until Messiah’s return at His Second Advent (Matthew 18:18-19). Don’t look for conditions to change in Palestine, even though we pump billions of dollars in that direction, and promote never-ending peace conferences. What the King has decreed is what will be done, come hell or high water! “Blood” is what the King decreed and “blood” is what we will continue to behold on the part of both parties!

We should notice one very important aspect of the King’s directives, he never decreed a State for the “Jewish race”, only a home land, so they had to pursue the objective of statehood by a different avenue. In his book The Zionist Connection, Alfred M. Lilenthal covers this topic on page 75:

Britain as the Mandatory Power absolutely refused to participate in any implementary measures to effectuate partition. The general consensus of the Security Council indicated opposition to carrying out the General Assembly Resolution of November 29, thus in effect vitiating [impairing] partition. Unless the U.S. took some action for establishment of an administration to govern Palestine, chaos threatened.

As the bitter battling between the Jewish Agency and the Palestine Higher Committee accelerated – the Arab states indicated they planned military intervention on May 15, the date of the Mandate’s end – the U. S. proposed a temporary trustee-ship, setting aside partition ‘without prejudice to the character of the eventual political settlement’, and called for a special session of the General Assembly.

Impelled by reports from many quarters, Truman for some time had been entertaining serious private doubts, never publicly expressed, as to the sagacity and practicability of the partition decision. In a blunt report to the Security Council on February 16, 1948, the United Nations Palestine Commission pointed out that it would require ‘military force in adequate strength’ in order to be able to implement the partition resolution. The hopes of a peaceful transfer of responsibility from the British Mandatory Power to the Arab and Jewish states had vanished when the Arab Higher Committee, the most authoritative spokesman for Palestine’s Arab community, indicated they were deliberately planning ‘to alter the plan by force.’ The commission feared that May 15, the date set for the transfer, would usher in ‘a period of uncontrolled widespread strife and bloodshed’.”

From this, it should be quite obvious the so-called “transfer of power” was never Lawfully conducted, at least from the standpoint of the Almighty. Therefore, the authority of the British King still stands!

I have repeated the above, although somewhat edited, in several papers. So what does it all boil down to? What it amounts to is the fact that today’s Cain-Canaanite-Edomite-jews have the blood of Canaan with his curse; Esau with his forever rejected offspring, and the blood of cursed Cain, (known also as “Kenite” & “Rechabite”) ancestry. The curse on Cain is that he would forever be a vagabond, never to find a place he could call home. Their history is replete with cases in point. They haven’t found a place yet to call home, Palestine no exception! If Palestine would qualify as a homeland for the Kenite-Edomite-jews, then the prophet Samuel was a liar! 2 Sam. 7:10 states:

Moreover I will appoint a place for my people [the twelve tribes of] Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as beforetime.”

If the Kenite-Edomite-jews are of the tribe of Judah, as Adam Rutherford, in his Iceland’s Great Inheritance claimed, then there would be no prophetic way for the tribe of Judah to return to Palestine! What is there about the words “move no more” that we don’t seem to understand? To give the reader a general, but concise, overview of Viking history pertinent to our study, I will quote from The World Book Encyclopedia (© 1970), vol. 19, pp. 294-297. This source will reveal important history of the Israelite tribe of Benjamin. This will also coincide with an important passage of Scripture:

VIKING was a member of the Scandinavian bands of sea rovers who launched a series of devastating and successful raids on England, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Spain between the 700’s and the 1100’s. The vikings also explored and settled Greenland and Iceland. They tried to establish settlements in America, but did not succeed.

Vikings were also called Northmen, Norsemen, or Danes. They were a Nordic people, and were the ancestors of the Norwegians, Swedes, and Danes of today.

They spoke a German dialect that resembled the language spoken in England at the time. The vikings used the Runic alphabet.

The vikings were an adventurous people who loved war and fighting. They were skillful and daring seamen. They were also the most efficient shipbuilders in Europe. Their swift, high-prowed ships carried raiding parties to most of the known world at that time and across the Atlantic to the unknown. The vikings killed, stole, and burned wherever they landed. The churches of Europe offered a special prayer for help against the vikings. It was ‘God, deliver us from the fury of the Northmen.’

One of the major causes for the viking invasions was the growth of population in their own countries, which increased the need for land and for other sources of income. Political conditions at home may have added to this restlessness. In addition, the vikings were always a seafaring people, who lived near or on the shores of the sea. The term viking may have come from the old Norse word vik, meaning bay or inlet. It was easy for these people to take to their ships and seek fortunes elsewhere when the situation became serious at home.

Viking invasions were at first simply acts of piracy and plunder. But, in many cases, they led to important settlements. The vikings strongly influenced the development of Europe for many years. The daring and imagination with which they roamed the seas gave rise to many colorful stories and poems, called sagas, about their deeds. But fiction can hardly surpass the amazing reality of viking deeds.

Life of the Vikings

The Work of the People. The vikings did not spend all their time at sea or in raiding. They planted crops in the spring before they set out on raids, and returned in the middle of summer to harvest them. After the harvest, the raiders left home again, and did not return until winter.

During the winter, the vikings spent their time at home preparing for next year’s raids. They also enjoyed playing various games during the long, cold evenings. They played a game similar to chess, and various dice games. The king and the nobles often had special entertainment such as horse fights, performing dogs, music, or jugglers, for their guests.

Some of the vikings worked in the cod, herring, and seal fisheries. Others made salt or tar. Two important occupations were the making of metal tools and weapons, and shipbuilding. The vikings were amazingly skillful shipbuilders and navigators. They usually built small, shallow ships, about 70 feet long and 16 feet wide. But they did construct some ships that measured as long as 300 feet. The ships were propelled by oars, with sometimes a single sail to help in maneuvering. The ships usually carried small crews of about 30 or 40 men. But they were so skillfully made and so daringly handled that the vikings could go anywhere in them.

Characteristics. The ferocity of the viking raiders terrified the people of Europe. Not only were they cruel, but also they carried on their raids with zest and efficiency. The viking raiders struck swiftly and secretly.

After hiding their boats, they pounced on their unsuspecting victims. The raiders had the upper hand before the invaded people knew what had happened. They killed, robbed, burned, and then escaped with such thorough preparation and with such speed that their victims had no opportunity even to try to punish them.

The vikings seemed to go mad during the heat of battle. Berserker, their name for a warrior, has come to be associated with insanity. These warriors seemed to enjoy destroying their victim's property, and went about it with horrible thoroughness. Fire was one of their favorite weapons. The vikings were equally merciless in killing the defeated, slaying not only men but also women and children. They often raided religious centers, because these were good sources of booty, and were poorly defended.

Although the vikings fought with savage cruelty, they had great courage. They enjoyed fighting, but they also loved adventure, as their amazing voyages show.

The qualities of intelligence and imagination that made the vikings such good navigators helped them in other ways. They soon learned to find and steal the horses when they invaded a village or town. As they began to settle in the invaded areas, they became skillful horsemen. Some of the invaded people learned to protect themselves against the swift raids of the vikings by surrounding their cities and towns with stout walls. But the vikings quickly learned how to besiege and subdue walled towns. They also became masters in fortifying the places that they captured.

The vikings learned rapidly from the more civilized people they attacked. For example, they quickly adopted the Christian religion. The vikings originally worshiped the Norse gods, such as Odin and Thor. In the 800’s, Christian missionaries began to travel among them to preach their religion. Before long, many vikings in Ireland, England, Normandy, and the Scandinavian countries became devout Christians.

As the vikings became more civilized, they gave up their cruelty and their savage love of destruction. Another impressive sign of the viking’s intelligence was their ability to shift from piracy to peaceful and productive commerce. It is true that the viking pirates destroyed much. They disturbed the old way of life in medieval Europe. But this often permitted experimentation and the growth of new ideas. By quickly changing from pirates to traders, the vikings helped develop commerce. The viking invasions helped create a new Europe.

Viking Invasions

The viking voyages and conquests include the sea-roving activities of the Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians. Medieval writers did not always distinguish carefully from what country their attackers came. They often used such terms as viking, Northman, or Dane in a general way. But it is possible to discover what areas each of the different Scandinavian peoples invaded.

The Swedish Vikings raided along the rivers of Germany, and conquered the area that is now western Russia. Small bands of Swedish sailors, called Varangians, established themselves on the shores of the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Finland, and Lake Ladoga in the 800’s. From there, they sailed up the Volkhov River and crossed the Dnepr River.

The Varangians built forts that soon became towns and trading centers. Kiev was the capital of the Varangian state. The word Russia may come from the name of a Varangian tribe, called Rus, or Rhos.

The Varangians soon pushed south from their strongholds on the Dnepr River to the Black Sea, and from there to the Bosporus. They raided and pillaged the entire area. In the early 900’s, they attacked Constantinople (now Istanbul). The Byzantine emperor had to pay a large sum of gold in order to save the city. The courage, daring, and skill of these raiders impressed the Byzantines, and the emperor set up a special Varangian guard for his personal protection. The Varangians were too few in number to maintain their identity over so great a stretch of land. By the year 1000, they had merged completely with the surrounding Slavic peoples.

The Danish Vikings raided England, France, Spain, and areas along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Their travels covered most of western Europe. They sailed up such great rivers as the Elbe, Garonne, Loire, Rhine, Rhône, Schelde, Seine, and Somme. Few of the larger towns in this area escaped their destructive raids. Many of them suffered repeated attacks. For example, the Danes destroyed Paris in 845 and 856. They besieged the city again in 885. This time, the Frankish emperor Charles the Fat paid the Danes to keep them from destroying it again. Many cities of Spain, including Seville, suffered from the attacks of the Danes.

These tireless raiders sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. They attacked Provence in southern France, the Balearic Islands, and Italy. The Danes also defeated the Moors in Morocco.

The Danes in England. The Danish raids on England began late in the 700’s, and continued for more than 300 years. In the late 800’s, a powerful Danish force established a base on English soil at York. The Danes marched from this base to conquer wherever they could. They were particularly successful in Northumbria, East Anglia, and the northern half of Mercia. The territory they controlled was called the Danelaw, and they forced the English to pay a tax, the Danegeld. The invaders met strong opposition from Alfred, King of Wessex. Alfred checked the forward progress of the invaders in 878. His success against the Danes is one reason for his title of ‘Great’.

For a time, Alfred’s successors continued to hold back the Danes. They even recaptured some territory. But new raiding parties attacked England in 980. Both Danes and Norwegians took part in these raids. Olaf Trygvasson, also called King Olaf I of Norway, joined King Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark in the early 990’s. These two viking leaders had one success after another. They returned home in 995, but Sweyn resumed the attacks in 1003. His raiders swept through England.

In 1013, Ethelred, King of Wessex, fled the country and Sweyn became King of England. His son Canute, or Knut, succeeded him. Canute later became king of Denmark and Norway also. Under Canute, the vikings held a huge empire and completely controlled the North Sea. After he died, they lost control of England.

The Danes in France. The vikings who occupied and gave their name to Normandy in northern France were mostly Danes. Rollo, or Hrolf, led the vikings in a long and bitter struggle with Charles the Simple, King of the West Franks. King Charles could not drive the invaders out, and they could not gain ground against the Franks. In 911, the invaders and the invaded reached an agreement. King Charles recognized Rollo as duke of Normandy. Rollo became a Christian, and pledged his loyalty to the king. He also agreed to defend Normandy and help repel future invaders. The Danes of Normandy kept in touch with their homeland for a long time. Scandinavian influences still remain, particularly in the names of places and even in the clothes and customs of the Norman people.

The Norwegian Vikings traveled to such areas as the Faeroe Islands, Greenland, the Hebrides, Iceland, Ireland, the Orkney Islands, Scotland, and Vinland (the mainland of North America). The influence of the Norwegians in Scotland and Ireland lasted throughout the Middle Ages. They founded the city of Dublin in about 840. It was the center of viking power in Ireland for many years.

The exploration and settlement of Iceland and Greenland were more daring and colorful than any other Norwegian exploits during the viking period. The literature of Iceland tells the story of these fearless Norwegian sailors.

Some of the Icelandic sagas tell of Norwegian voyages to America. According to the sagas, Bjarni Herjulfsson was the first viking to see North America, when a storm blew his ship off course. Herjulfsson did not land on this new territory. But Leif Ericson supposedly visited the land. He named it Vinland. The sagas tell of trips from Greenland and Iceland to Vinland for about 12 years.

For many years, scientists tried to discover exactly where the vikings established settlements in North America. In 1961, Norwegian archaeologists discovered the remains of a viking settlement near Flower’s Cove in northern Newfoundland. Many scientists accept the ruins as proof that vikings lived there about A.D. 1000. Some believe the ruins may be the remains of Ericson’s settlement in Vinland.”

The passage of interest is this: “The Varangians built forts that soon became towns and trading centers. Kiev was the capital of the Varangian state. The word Russia may come from the name of a Varangian tribe, called Rus, or Rhos. The name Rus, or Rhos may be the name “Rosh” at Gen. 46:21:

And the sons of Benjamin were Belah, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and Ard.” The prudent Bible student will have to use his own best judgment, but if Rus, or Rhos means Russia, it surely fits. However that might be, more importantly, historically we find the tribe of Benjamin in Russia as Vikings!

We will now turn to the 6-volume Cyclopædia of Universal History by John Clark Ridpath, vol. 2, pp. 293-294 for further information. You will notice the mention of the Khazars, which will be of special interest to Israel Identity:

The authentic history of Russia begins at a period somewhat later than that of the Scandinavian nations. There is a sense, however, in which the statement may be reversed, for the tribes inhabiting the vast region now included under the name of Russia were better known to the Greeks and Romans than were those of the Baltic provinces. The names Scythian and Sarmatian are sufficiently familiar as the tribal epithets by which the peoples of the great north-eastern steppes were designated.

During the great ethnic movements of the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries Russia was the principal field on which and over which the powerful nations of Goths, Alans, Huns, Avars, and Bulgarians marshaled their hosts for the subjugation of the West. At a later period the Slavonic tribes first appeared on the scene – unless, indeed, these were the descendants of the ancient Sarmatians. Their first impact was upon the Finns, whom they drove from their native seats. Many, however, remained, and were blended with the dominant Slavs. From this union and amalgamation sprang the modern Russians.

Soon after the Slavic tribes gained the ascendency they founded the towns of' Novgorod and Kiev, which became the capitals of the two divisions of the country. In the course of a century the former principality was invaded by the Rus out of the North, and both Slavs and Finns were reduced to a tributary relation. Several times the Slavic tribes revolted; but finally, despairing of success, they invited the great Rus prince, Ruric, to come to Novgorod and be their king. In the year 862 he came with his brothers Sinaf and Truver, and then and there was founded the Russian Empire.

From this time until nearly the middle of the eleventh century the family of Ruric occupied the throne. On the death of the great chieftain, in 879, the succession passed to his cousin Oleg, who reigned for twenty-three years. During this time the principality of Kiev was conquered and added to that of Novgorod. The Khazars between the Dnieper and the Caspian were also subdued, and the Magyars were driven out of Russia in the direction of Hungary. Oleg next made war on the Byzantine Empire, and pressed upon the Greeks with such force that in 911 the Emperor was obliged to consent to a peace in every way advantageous to the Rus.

After the death of Oleg, in the following year, Igor, son of Ruric, came to the throne, and reigned for thirty-three years. His career was that of a warrior. He first put down a revolt of the Drevlians on the Pripet, and then vanquished the Petchenegs, who had their seats on the shores of the Black Sea. Afterwards, in 941, he engaged in a war with the Greek Emperor, but was less successful than his predecessor. In a second conflict with the Drevlians he was defeated and slain, and the crown passed to his son Sviatoslav, under the regency of Olga, his mother. This princess became a convert to Christianity, and the new faith gained a footing at Kiev.

The Emperor, however, remained a pagan, and devoted himself to war. He made campaigns against the same nations that had felt the sword of his father and grandfather. The Bulgarians also were at one time his enemies, and were defeated in battle. While returning from an unsuccessful expedition against the Greeks of Constantinople Sviatoslav was attacked and killed by the Petchenegs, through whose country he was passing. On his death, in 972. the Empire, which was now extended to the sea of Azov, was divided among his three sons, Yaropolk, Oleg, and Vladimir. The first received Kiev, the second the country of the Drevlians, and the third Novgorod. The brothers soon quarreled and went to war. Oleg was slain and Vladimir fled. Yaropolk gained possession of the whole country, but Vladimir gathered the Rus tribes to his standard, returned against his brother, put him to death, and secured the Empire for himself. He then conquered Red Russia, Lithuania, and Livonia. He became a Christian, married the sister of the Greek Emperor, and received the title of the Great. Under his influence and example Russia turned from paganism to Christianity. Churches rose on every hand; schools were founded, and new cities gave token that the night of barbarism was lifting from the great power of the North.

Vladimir left twelve sons to contend for the crown. On his death civil war broke out among them, and several of the claimants were slain. At length Sviatopolk, son of Yaropolk, himself an adopted son of Vladimir, hewed his way to the throne over the bodies of three of his foster brothers. Yaroslav, one of the surviving sons of the late Emperor, allied himself with Henry II of Germany and returned to the contest. The struggle continued until 1019, when a decisive battle was fought, in which Sviatopolk was signally defeated. He fled from the field and died on his way to Poland. After this crisis the Empire was divided between Yaroslav and Metislav, but the latter presently died, and the former became sole ruler of Russia ....” (continued WTL #181)