Watchman's Teaching Letter #223 November 2016
This is my two hundred and twenty-third monthly teaching letter and continues my nineteenth year of publication. I have resolved to do a series of lessons providing clarifying criticism of Howard B. Rand’s books, tracts and articles published in his Destiny Magazine, which includes several guest writers of varying degrees in excellence. Although I rate Rand and his associate writers only 50%, some of their articles are simply outstanding.
With this lesson, I will continue a critical review of a series entitled “The Book Of The Kingdom” found in Destiny magazine issues from January, 1949 until April, 1952 in 24 chapters, and oddly enough Rand does not identify an author. He may have written it all himself, or it might have been a team effort by him and some of his associated writers. So Rand either wrote it, or if by the help of others, at least he approved of it and is responsible for it, (and it will be edited by me):
“The Book Of The Kingdom,Destiny, February 1949:
Chapter III of XXIV, “The Conquest Of Palestine”:
The Kings Of Canaan gathered together to form a great confederacy to fight against Joshua (i.e., Yahshua). However, when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Israel had done to Jericho and Ai, they were impressed by the might of the invading people so they resorted to cunning in an effort to escape the fate of their Canaanite neighbors. They sent delegates to Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) who represented themselves as ambassadors from a far country who had come to Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) because they had heard of Yahweh his Almighty and of His fame and exploits in subduing the Egyptians on behalf of His people Israel. Therefore, they said, they had come to make a league with Israel.
“In order to convey the impression that they had come from a great distance the Gibeonites had taken old sacks and old wine bottles which had been torn and mended with them. They wore old clothing and worn shoes upon their feet, their provisions were stale and their bread was dry and mouldy. When Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) and the elders of Israel questioned them, feeling that they might be living among them in Canaan, the Gibeonites showed the worn condition of their clothing and shoes, blandly stating they were new when they first began their journey. The mouldy bread, they said, was fresh from the ovens when they left their own country.
“Joshua (i.e.,Yahshua) Makes Covenant
“Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) and the elders did not ask counsel of Yahweh in this matter but entered at once into a league with the Gibeonites, making a covenant of peace with them. Three days later Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) discovered that they were neighbors who dwelt right there in Canaan. Thus, Israel was prevented from warring against them or destroying their cities because of the covenant the leaders of Israel had made with them. The people complained against their princes but they replied:
“‘... We have sworn unto them by Yahweh Almighty of Israel: now therefore we may not touch them.’ (Joshua 9:19.)
“Importance of Oath
“Though Yahweh had told Israel to drive out all the inhabitants from Canaan, yet His wrath would have been upon Israel if they had failed to keep their oath. Yahweh’s people are required to keep their word even though they swear to their own hurt. When listing those who will abide in the Tabernacle of Yahweh and dwell in His holy hill, David includes as one of the qualifications, ‘... He that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not’ (Psa. 15:4).
“A man’s word should be as good as his bond. Yahweh requires that when a man has given his word he must keep that word inviolate .... The law of vows was as follows, ‘When you vow a vow to your Ever-Living God [sic Yahweh Almighty], you shall not delay to pay it, for the Ever-Living God [sic YahwehAlmighty] will demand it from you;– and that would be a sin to you. But if you do not vow, it will be no sin. You must carefully perform the utterance of your lips; whatever you vow to your Ever-Living God [sic YahwehAlmighty], you must give whatever you have promised ...’ (Deut. 23:22-24, Ferrar Fenton Trans.)”
[Critical note by Clifton A. Emahiser: While Ferrar Fenton did well correcting many errors made by other translators, in his own translation, he blundered on the Tetragrammaton by changing “Yahweh” to the “Ever-Living”, (changing a Noun to an Adjective). In his “Introductory Note”, p. ix of his translation, he says in part:
“Finally, I must note as to my spelling of the proper names of localities and men. As I made my translation from the Hebrew without any English version open before me, I have followed the now general plan of Oriental scholars and simply translated those names, except a few, such as ‘Moses’, ‘Joshua’, etc. which are too fixed by popular use to be altered ....” Why, then, does he in his “Introduction To The Study Of The History Of Israel And Judah”, p. 221, use the corrupted term “Jehovah”? The pronunciation “Jehovah” was unknown until 1520 A.D., when it was introduced by the catholic monk, Galatinus, (As per Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon.)As a matter of fact, Fenton didn’t even get the articulation of the name of Joshua correct, as it should have been “Yahshua”.] – Back to Rand & Destiny.
“Solomon emphasized the need of keeping our solemn promises to Yahweh when he said, ‘When thou vowest a vow unto the Almighty, defer not to pay it; for he hath no pleasure in fools: pay that which thou hast vowed. Better it is that thou shouldest not vow, than that thou shouldest vow and not pay. Suffer not thy mouth to cause thy flesh to sin; neither say thou before the angel, that it was an error: wherefore should the Almighty be angry at thy voice, and destroy the work of thine hands ...?’ (Ecc. 5:4-6.) In listing those who will have no part in the coming new order of the ages when the Kingdom has been established in perfection upon earth, John, in Revelation, declares that all liars and those who practice depravity and falsehood will have no place there.” (Digest of the Divine Law, by Howard B. Rand, Member of the Massachusetts & Maine Bars, pages 150-151.)”
[Critical note by Clifton A. Emahiser: While a substantial amount of the comments made by Rand concerning Biblical Law are devotedly compiled by him, he is not without error on some of them. So I went to my copy of his Digest of the Divine Law, pp. 150-151, and what he stated about making vows was found there in greater detail. But upon opening his book, I found a section explaining the Ten Commandments. I immediately wondered whether or not that Rand made the same mistake of contextually misidentifying and confusing the meaning of the 7th with the 10th Commandment.
Rand makes a major issue of violating another man’s wife on pp. 70-72 in seven paragraphs, and only devotes one sentence on p. 72, “... That they may keep thee from the strange woman, from the stranger which flattereth with her words ....” However, with the 7th Commandment, race-mixing is by far a greater issue! This is confirmed at Hosea 4:2: “By swearing, and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing adulteryH5003, they break out, and blood touches blood.”,where one ethnicity sexually race-mixes with an entirely different ethnicity. It is, therefore, the 10th Commandment that nails down the edict against a man violating another man’s wife! And Yahweh didn’t make two of the ten Commandments entirely alike! End critical note]
To Howard B. Rand’s credit, I will now quote from his Digest of the Divine Law, pp. 77-79 (and I will edit it):
“The Tenth Commandment
“The final and last commandment which Israel heard promulgated at Mount Sinai by the voice of the Almighty was, ‘Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbour’s.’ Jesus (i.e., Yahshua) also said, ‘... Take heed, and beware of covetousness; for a man’s life consists not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth.’
“It is worth noting that this last commandment sums up the cause back of most of the violations of the rest of the commandments. Covetousness leads men to commit murder and adultery; it is the first cause leading man to steal the property of his neighbor and often is back of the giving of false testimony. Yahweh has declared, ‘Woe to them that devise iniquity and work evil upon their beds! when the morning is light, they practice it, because it is in the power of their hand. And they covet fields, and take them by violence; and houses, and take them away; so they oppress a man and his house, even a man and his heritage.’
“Reason for Violence
“Violence and blood have filled the earth as the result of the breaking of this tenth commandment. The desire to acquire the possessions of others has resulted in destructive competition in business, which is itself war when carried on under the Babylonian system, leading to armed conflict between nations. The desire for commercial supremacy as nations strive to destroy competition is but coveting world markets, even to the point of instituting aggressive warfare in order to take that which is coveted. There will and can always be legitimate trade in the buying and selling of goods and the exchange of one’s increase, but, unfortunately, methods are such under the present system that men are not content to live and let live. Instead men covet power and wealth and in their desire to bring their plans to fruition have drenched the pages of history with blood.
“The Almighty gave to men an inheritance in the land forever, but modern business and the Babylonian system of administration has denied men their Yahweh-given privilege. In a world order where foreclosure of mortgages, tax sales and interest charges can be imposed upon a people and used to acquire the property of one’s neighbor, at a greatly reduced value, such has served those who have coveted their neighbor’s possessions. Covetousness is the foundation of evil desires and lusts.
“In these Ten Commandments the Almighty has set before His people what is required of them in their relationship to Him and to their fellow [Adamic] man. If these laws are kept (and they can only be kept by a people in whose heart they have been written) there will be peace and contentment in that community, with freedom from strife. [ ] mine
“When the question is asked as to what we can do regarding the law, the answer is to keep that law insofar as it is possible for the individual to comply with its requirements. No individual can do less as he desires and works for the restoration of the Law of Yahweh as the Law of the land.
“We have given but a brief summary of the ten commandments, making reference to certain of the statutes and judgments which are for the purpose of forcing men to comply with the requirements of the commandments. Until our nation makes this enforcement part of their administrative activities only men of good will will strive to keep the requirements of the law.
“While no honest man can deny the importance of the Ten Commandments yet they are no more important to the individual who desires to be right with the Almighty than are the Yahweh-given statutes to the nation that would have the Almighty’s blessings on all their undertakings in the righteous administration of equity and justice for all.”
[Memo: I still believe that Almighty Yahweh didn’t make two of the ten Commandments just alike! C.A.E.] – Back to Rand & Destiny.
“People’s Responsibility (speaking of the Gibeonites)
“We have here a clear example of the responsibility of a people for the acts of their leaders, even though they are in disagreement with those acts. Because the leaders of a nation are authorized to speak in behalf of the people, the people become a party to the commitments made by those leaders. Not only is the present generation so committed, but generations to come may also be bound by the commitments made by their forefathers. This was illustrated when, many years after Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) made the covenant with the Gibeonites, Saul tried to exterminate the Gibeonites who were in the land in his day. The covenant Israel made with them under Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) was not a scrap of paper. Because Saul violated its terms, the land suffered with a severe famine and no relief came until Israel righted the wrong Saul tried to perpetrate. Punishment was meted out to the house of Saul because he had refused to respect the terms of the covenant made with the Gibeonites (2 Sam. 21:1-14).
“Hewers of Wood
“Because the Gibeonites had practiced deception upon Israel, Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) dealt with them accordingly. While he was compelled to respect the terms of the covenant of peace, he declared that they were cursed for their deception and would become hewers of wood and drawers of water for the people. When the Gibeonites first approached Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) they had said, ‘We are your servants.’ It is reasonable to assume, however, that they did not intend their diplomatic display of humbleness to react literally upon them. Nevertheless, this was the actual result of their deceitfulness and they became bondmen in Israel.
“One fact of importance is that the Gibeonites had faith in the word of Yahweh and believed His promise that the land of Canaan would be given to Israel and its inhabitants destroyed. They admitted to Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) that they were afraid for their lives because of Israel and had practiced the deception in order that they might secure a covenant of peace with them. They willingly accepted the position Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) assigned to them as a result of the deception they had practiced upon him and the elders of Israel.
“Here we have the first instance of an alien people living in the land of Israel, side by side with the Israelites. In the recorded history of the Almighty’s people we find the fulfillment of the prophecy that the aliens dwelling among them would become pricks in their eyes and thorns in their sides in later days, Wherever Israel is found, there also in their midst will be found the Canaanite who is a constant vexation to them.
[Question by Clifton A. Emahiser: It appears to me like this covenant we Israelites made with those Gibeonites way back then, may still be in effect in our present day. If true, whom could they be?] – Back to Rand & Destiny.
“Gibeon Under Attack
“As a result of the Gibeonites making a covenant of peace with Israel the kings of Canaan became very angry with them. They feared greatly that, since the Gibeonites were allied with Israel, Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) would be invincible. The great city of Gibeon was a royal city in the land and the men of Gibeon were mighty warriors. The King of Jerusalem therefore sent word to four other kings in Canaan, saying:
“‘Come up unto me, and help me, that we may smite Gibeon: for it hath made peace with Joshua (i.e.,Yahshua) and with the children of Israel.’ (Joshua 10:4.)
“Joshua’s (i.e.,Yahshua’s) Strategy
“The strategy was to destroy the Gibeonites before they could join forces with Israel. The five kings gathered their armies and besieged Gibeon but the men of Gibeon sent word to Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) at Gilgal, imploring him to come immediately to their assistance. Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) promptly advanced from Gilgal, marching all that night:
“‘And Yahweh said unto Joshua (i.e., Yahshua), Fear them not: for I have delivered them into thine hand; there shall not a man of them stand before thee.’ (Joshua 10:8.)
“It is worthy of careful note that Israel was not only duty bound to keep the covenant of peace they had made with the Gibeonites but they were bound by that covenant of friendliness to go to their assistance when Gibeon was in trouble. Humanly speaking, they could have refrained from marching to assist those who had deceived them into making a treaty with them and the five kings would have accomplished what they were prevented from doing; that is, destroy the city and its inhabitants. But to have done so would have been a negative repudiation of their oath and it would have brought punishment upon them. Israel had no other choice than to immediately go to the assistance of Gibeon because of their oath. The primary reason that the five kings were attacking Gibeon was based upon the covenant made with Israel.
“The armies of the five kings, which were encamped outside the walls of Gibeon, were surprised and outflanked by Joshua’s (i.e., Yahshua’s) move. Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) had two objectives in view: first, to relieve the pressure upon Gibeon and, second, to cut off the retreat of the armies of the five kings to prevent their fleeing to security behind the walls of Jerusalem. This had been accomplished by making a wide detour, marching through the night in a circular movement to the rear of the opposing forces. The surprise was too much for the enemies of Israel and they were driven into the open country where, the Record states, many were slain by great stones, or aerolites [i.e., stony meteorites], cast down from heaven.
“Here we have the record of a great meteoric shower used by the Almighty to help Israel in this critical day of battle. In the same way that it was essential for the Almighty to intervene at that time in order that the enemies opposing Israel’s right to possess the land might be destroyed, The Almighty will again intervene to destroy [true] Israel’s modern enemies who are in our generation undertaking to prevent them from coming into their world inheritance. Through Ezekiel the Almighty declares He will rain great hailstones, fire and brimstone upon these foes of His Kingdom (Ez. 38:22).
“Joshua’s (i.e.,Yahshua’s) Long Day
“The battle against the five kings was at its height when Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) issued his famous command:
“‘... Sun, stand thou still [remain silent] upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies ...’ (Joshua 10:12-13.)
“The command of Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) was fulfilled:
“‘... So the sun stood still [remained silent] in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day. And there was no day like that before it or after it, that Yahweh hearkened unto the voice of a man: for Yahweh fought for Israel.’ (Joshua 10:13-14.)
“Without exception atheists and skeptics have made all manner of fun of such a day as is described in the Book of Joshua (i.e., Yahshua). Theologians and church members have questioned the accuracy of the account. With scarcely an exception Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias either ignore it altogether or declare Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) was mistaken, assuming the day seemed to have been lengthened because of the extensive marching and fighting on the part of the Israelites.
“A Possible Solution
“The stock-in-trade argument against its occurrence is that if the earth, sun and moon remained in the relative positions described by Joshua (i.e., Yahshua), the earth would have had to stop its spinning. This, we are told, would have been disastrous as the earth turns upon its axis at the rate of about 1,000 miles per hour. To suddenly stop that turning would bring about chaos, not only because of the loss of gravity, but the earth itself would fly to pieces. There is no way of knowing exactly what would happen if the earth did stop spinning, but if their arguments are true, there is still another explanation of how the long day could occur without affecting the turning of the earth upon its axis.
“It is a law of physics that every force acts independently of every other. While the earth is spinning, a force which is independent of the force causing this spin could be applied, affecting the polar regions and causing the earth to turn over upon a second axis independent of the polar axis of the earth without affecting in any degree its original spinning. This can be illustrated by a spinning top or gyroscope which can be turned over without affecting its spinning. The north pole could be made to make a complete circle, or one revolution, returning to its former position while the earth continued to spin on its axis and move forward in its path around the sun. At the same time, through the new motion given to the poles, a given point on earth would be kept directly under the sun for the duration of this turnover.
“The temporary second motion given to the earth would not interfere with the effects produced by the continuation of the spinning of the earth upon its own axis or its movement around the sun. Neither would it have any effect upon the length of the year itself as the motion of the earth in its orbit around the sun would be unaffected. The only recognized change would be that the sun would remain in an apparently stationary position over the point where upon the earth the new axis would be established, caused by the turning of the poles. This relative position would be maintained even while the earth spun upon its own axis as long as the ratio of turning given to the poles was such that it compensated for the surface movement at a given point directly under the sun.
“It is not our purpose to say that this is what happened, for we do not know, but it is our objective to show that the relative Positions of the earth, sun and moon could be maintained by Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) without affecting in the least the earth’s motion, both in its spinning upon its axis and in its movement around the sun.
“The Biblical account establishes the fact of an astronomical disturbance of great intensity which preceded the beginning of the ‘long day.’ It was so severe that great stones came down from heaven and more of the enemies of Israel died from this shower of stones than were slain by the armies of Joshua (i.e., Yahshua). The context clearly indicates that a tremendous meteoric shower preceded the event which caused the earth, sun and moon to remain in the relative positions described by Joshua (i.e., Yahshua). This brings up some interesting questions. Did an interspace visitor come into our solar system, showering the earth with great meteoric stones, and at the same time exert a tremendous influence at the polar regions, causing the earth’s axis to make one complete rotation?
“The field of force responsible for holding the axis of the earth in its present position could have been momentarily interfered with by the close sweep of a comet or other celestial body of a highly magnetic ore. This body could have induced a secondary field of force, acting upon the earth, which is itself a magnet, much as a magnetic impulse acts upon the armature of a motor, causing it to turn. The influence thus exerted upon the earth by a new field of force would have none of the evil effects of a direct contact between a celestial visitor and the earth but it would nevertheless exert a tremendous pull upon it.
“Earth Turned Over
“When the earth had turned half way over it would continue on and complete the revolution, even though the magnetic mass had passed on beyond the earth’s orbit by that time, and right itself again in the original field of force. All this would be possible if a comet or celestial body passed close enough to the earth to set up a powerful field of force. The fact that a spectacular meteoric shower preceded the long day clearly indicates that such a heavenly visitor did graze the earth’s surface as it sped through the heavens in its path around the sun.
“Here we have one of the most interesting accounts in the Scriptures of a physical phenomena that effected the relative motions of sun, moon and earth. It is an account of a stupendous miracle wrought for the benefit of Israel. Who is the man that questions the power of the Almighty? He who created all things could surely impose upon that creation the conditions which made the event recorded in the Book of Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) possible.
“Five Kings Defeated
“The five kings were defeated and fled to hide in a cave at Makkedah. Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) commanded that stones be rolled over the mouth of the cave until the battle was over and Israel had destroyed the enemy. When the armies of the five kings were finally defeated, the people returned to Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) encamped at Makkedah. The statement is made, ‘None moved his tongue against any of the children of Israel.’
“Then Joshua commanded that the mouth of the cave be opened and the kings brought out. They were sentenced to death and their bodies were buried in the cave.
“A Great Confederacy
“Following this battle a great confederacy of kings gathered to destroy Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) and Israel. They had become greatly disturbed as a result of what Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) had done in conquering the land, destroying the cities and slaying the people. But in the campaigns that followed Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) was victorious over all Israel’s enemies. The account states further that there was not a city that made peace with Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) except the inhabitants of Gibeon:
“‘It was the Eternal [sic Yahweh] who made their hearts stubborn enough to battle with Israel, that he might have them all wiped out and destroyed without mercy, as the Eternal [sic Yahweh] had commanded Moses.’ (Joshua 11:20, Moffatt Trans.)
“Modernists have condemned this slaughter, wholly unaware that moral corruption was so prevalent in Canaan and the attending diseases so advanced that if the inhabitants of the land were left to continue their pagan practices, all Israel and the world would eventually be infected with disease. The only way the spread of such contamination could be prevented was in the destruction of all the people [A lesson for our own time C.A.E.] Sodom and Gomorrah also perished because of the moral depravity of their inhabitants and now the Almighty was using Israel to remove another plague spot, for the land had also become corrupt and evil.
“Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) waged an extensive campaign against the Anakims, or giants, who infested the land, massacred them and sacked their cities, leaving none in the land of Israel except a few in Gaza, Gath and Ashdod:
“‘So Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) took the whole land, according to all that Yahweh said unto Moses; and Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) gave it for an inheritance unto Israel according to their divisions by their tribes ....’ (Joshua 11:23.)
“Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) was growing old and Yahweh told him that a great deal of land yet remained to be possessed. This land had already been divided by lot among the tribes and each had received his portion and was instructed to go up and possess it. But Israel failed to vigorously push their campaigns and Joshua (i.e., Yahshua) chided the tribes for their failure to conquer the land yet remaining in the hands of its inhabitants.
“Dan the Pioneer
“Dan found the coastal region in which this tribe settled too small for them so they went out and conquered lands beyond the confines of Canaan. They invariably named the places they possessed after the name of their father Dan. This name is incorporated in the names of rivers and geographical locations throughout the territory through which they journeyed as they spread westward and northward in their conquests.
“Reuben, Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh were sent home to the territory they had chosen on the east side of the Jordan after the conquest of the land was completed and the land had been divided among the tribes. The account of the conquest of Palestine concludes with the statement, ‘And the land rested from war’.” This is the end of chapter III of “The Book Of The Kingdom.”
I will now give an overview of this period of time from The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible, p. 202:
“GIBEON:ghib-ohn´ [pertaining to a hill]. The chief city of the Hivites, a people of Canaan (Josh. 11:19), included in the general designation Amorite (II Sam. 21:2). They possessed also Chephirah, Beeroth, and Kiriath-jearim (Josh. 9:17). They obtained a treaty with Joshua by false pretenses. The deceit was discovered and they were made slaves of the Israelites (ch. 9). But the treaty was respected: the Gibeonites were aided against their enemies (ch. 10:1-11); and several centuries later, when Saul violated its provisions by a massacre of Gibeonites, the sense of justice was satisfied by the execution of 7 of Saul’s sons (II Sam. 21:1-9). Gibeon was within the territory assigned to the Benjamites (Josh. 18:25); and was given, with its suburbs, to the family of Aaron (ch. 21:17). Saul’s ancestors dwelt for a time in the town and were men of influence (I Chron. 8:29; 9:35). In the contest between Ish-bosheth and David, a battle took place here (II Sam. 2:8-17, 24; 3:30). Here David gained a victory over the Philistines (I Chron. 14:16; in II Sam. 5:25, Geba). In its vicinity Joab murdered Amasa (II Sam. 20:8). There also, in David’s reign and in the early part of Solomon’s reign, before the Temple was built, stood the tabernacle and the brazen altar; and there Solomon sacrificed and in a dream received a message from the Almighty (I Kings 3:4-15; I Chron. 16:39, 40; 21:29; II Chron. 1:3, 6, 13). Gibeonites returned from the Exile (Neh. 7:25), and aided in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem (ch. 3:7). According to Josephus, Gibeon was 40 or 50 stadia (about 4½ to 6 miles) from Jerusalem (Josephus’ Antiquities vii. 11, 7; War ii. 19, 1). Its site is found at the modern village of el-Jib, 5½ miles northwest by north of Jerusalem. An oblong or oval hill stands in the midst of a basin consisting of broad valleys in a high state of cultivation. The hill is steep of ascent, being composed of horizontal layers of limestone rock that form great steps from the plain upward.”
From the above quotation we are informed that “Gibeonites returned from the Exile (Neh. 7:25), and aided in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem (ch. 3:7).”
[Critical Note by William Finck: “However, Rand and The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible cannot justly assert that any of the Judahites returning from captivity were Gibeonites by race, simply because they chose to settle in Gibeon. The city of Gibeon clearly fell to Benjamin (Joshua 21:17) and there is no reason to doubt that Benjamites settled there, as the Gibeonites were taken as slaves, and even if some Gibeonites remained, they were still only slaves. Nehemiah 7:5 informs us that these people who returned ‘were reckoned by genealogy’, and therefore could only have been Israelites who settled in Gibeon!”] One must always critique the context, C.A.E.!