Judaism in Action, Chapter 6 (p. 290 to 316)





1From the Jewish Encyclopedia (Funk & Wagnalls, 1903), Volume IV, beginning on page 71.

70 Jerusalem besieged and conquered by Titus; the Temple destroyed.

72 Judea completely conquered; the “Fiscus Judaicus” instituted by Vespasian.

115 The Jews of Babylonia, Palestine, Egypt, Cyprus; Cyrene, and Libya rise against Trajan.

118 The Jews of Palestine rise against Trajan and Hadrian; “War of Lucius Quietus.”

133 Rebellion of Bar Kokba against Hadrian; restoration of the Jewish State.

135 Fall of Bethar; end of Bar Kokba’s rebellion.

161 Revolution in Palestine against Antoninus Pius.

280 Judah III, son of Judah II, patriarch, collects a tax from foreign communities.

306 Council of Elvira forbids Christians to eat with Jews or to intermarry with them.

325 First Nicene Council separates the celebration of Easter from that of the Jewish Passover.


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339 Constantius forbids, under penalty of death, marriage of a Jew with a Christian woman, and circumcision of slaves.

361 Restoration of the Temple at Jerusalem undertaken under Julian the Apostate.

362 Julian the Apostate abolishes the Jew tax.

400 Moses, the false Messiah of Crete.

415 Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria, drives the Jews from Alexandria.

418 (March 10) Jews excluded from all public offices and dignities in the Roman Empire.

425 Extinction of the patriarchate.

455 Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Yezdegerd Ill.

405 The Council of Vannes (Gaul) prohibits the clergy from taking part in Jewish banquets.

471 Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Firuz (Perozes); the exilarch Huna Mari and others suffer martyrdom.

500 ( circa). Abu-Kariba, Himyarite king, adopts Judaism, and converts his army and his people.

511 Mar-Zutra II, prince of the Captivity (exilarch), establishes an independent Jewish state in Babylonia under the Persian king Kobad.

516 (May 14, 15) Uprising against Jews of Clermont; synagogue destroyed.


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517 The Council of Epaon forbids Christians to take part in Jewish banquets.

518 Persecution of the Jews by Kobad, King of Persia.

532 Justinian I decrees that the testimony of Jews shall be valid only in Jewish cases.

537 Justinian declares Jews incapable of holding any official dignity.

538 The Council of Orleans forbids Jews to appear on the street at Eastertide.

589 Reccared, Visigothic King of Spain, completely isolates Jews from Christians.

612 Sisebut, Visigothic king, forces the Jews to accept baptism or to emigrate.

624 The Banu Kainuka’a, a Jewish-Arabic tribe. driven from Arabia by Mohammed.

627 Emperor Heraclius forbids Jews to enter Jerusalem, and in other ways harasses the Palestinian Jews.

629 Dagobert orders the Jews of the Frankish Empire to accept baptism or to emigrate.

633 The Council of Toledo under Sisenand Visigothic king, and Isadore of Seville forces converts to Judaism back to Christianity.

638 Chintila enacts that only professing Catholics shall remain in Visigothic Spain; Jews emigrate.

640 Omar, the second Calif, banishes all Jews from Arabia; the “Pact of Omar” imposes restrictions upon Jews in the whole Mohammedan world.


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641 Bulan, kahn of the Chazars, becomes a Jew.

658 Beginning of the Gaonate; Mar-Isaac, head of the Sura Academy, takes the title “Gaon.”

694 (Nov.) All Jews in Spain and Gallic Province declared slaves; children under seven forcibly baptized.

720 Omar II, Ommiad Calif of Damascus, re-enacts the “Pact of Omar.”

721 Appearance of the false Messiah Serenus in Syria causes many Spanish Jews to emigrate to Palestine.

761 The Karaite schism led by Anan ben David.

797 Isaac sent by Charlemagne on an embassy to Harun al-Rashid.

814 “Capitula de Judeis” of Charlemagne and Ludwig decide that Jews should not have Church utensils in pledge.

827 (circa). Eberard, “Magister Judaeorum” under Louis I the Pious, king of the Franks, protects the Jews against Agobard, Bishop of Lyons.

845 The Council of Meaux, under Amolo Bishop of Lyons, enacts anti-Jewishdecrees, renewing those of Constantine and Theodosius II.

850 Al-Mutawakkil orders the “Peoples of the Book” to wear yellow kerchiefs.


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878 Ibrahim ibn Ahmad orders Jews of Sicily to wear a badge.

982 (July 13) Kalonymus saves life of Otto II after battle of Cotrone.

1007 Persecution at Rouen by Robert the Devil.

1012 (Nov.) Jews driven from Mayence by Emperor Henry II.

1013 (Apr. 19) Massacre at Cordova by soldiers of Sulaiman ibn al-Hakim.

1021 Al-Hakim renews the “Pact of Omar” in Egypt.

1066 Banishment of the Jews from Granada.

1078 Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) promulgatescanonical law against Jews holding office in Chrisendom.

1079 Jews repulsed from Ireland.

1085 Pope Gregory VII protests against Jews being placed by the King of Castile in authority over Christians.

1090 “Fuero” (decree) of Alfonso VI appoints duel as means of settling litigation between Christian and Jew. (Feb. 19) Henry IV grants to Judah ben Kalonymus and other Jews of Speyer protection to life and property.

1096 First Crusade; Jews massacred along the Rhine and elsewhere.

1099 The Jews of Jerusalem burned in a synagogue by the Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon.


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1103 (Jan. 6) The “Constitutio Pacis” of the imperial court at Mayence assures the Jews of the “emperor’s peace.”

1108 Massacre at Toledo.

1117 Persecution at Rome; appearance of a false Messiah at Cordova.

1120 Calixtus II issues bull “Sicut Judaeis” the charter of the Roman Jews.

1124 Ladislaus I of Bohemia decrees that no Christian shall serve Jews.

1144 Alleged martyrdom of St William of Norwich (first blood accusation).

1146 Second Crusade; Jews massacred throughout France and Germany. Beginning of the Almohad persecution in northern Africa and Southern Spain; Jews flee, or pretend to accept Islam.

1150 Statutes of Aries appoint a special Jewish oath.

1156 Jews of Persia persecuted on account of pseudo Messiah, David Alroy.

1168 Latins and Greeks, Jews and Saracens, granted right of being judged by their own laws in Sicily.

1171 Thirty-one Jews and Jewesses of Blois burned on the charge of having used human blood in the Passover.

1172 Persecution of the Jews of Yemen. Messianic excitement.

1174 Sultan Nureddin Mahmud removes all Jews of Syria and Egypt from public offices.


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1178 Riot at Toledo, at which Fermosa, the Jewish mistress of Alfonso VIII, is killed.

1179 The third Lateran Council passes decrees protecting the religious liberty of the Jews. (Aug.) Jews of Boppard and neighborhood slain because body of Christian woman is found on banks of Rhine. Jews expelled from Bohemia.

1182 (April) Philip Augustus of France banishes the Jews from his hereditary provinces and takes one-third of their debts.

1189 Attack on the Jews of London at coronation of Richard I.

1190 (May 17) Self immolation of 150 Jews at York to avoid baptism.

1194 “Ordinances of the Jewry” passed in England for registering Jewish debts, thus preparing the way for the exchequer of Jews.

1198 Jews permitted to return to France by Philip Augustus on payment of 15,000 livres in silver.

1200 Bishop Conrad of Mayence issues a formula for an oath in German for Jews of Erfurt.

1205 (July 15) Innocent III writes to Archbishop of Sens and Bishop of Paris laying down the principle that Jews are bound to perpetual subjection because of the Crucifixion.

1209 Council of Avignon issues restrictive measures against the Jews. (July 22) French Jews attacked and plundered; 200 murdered.


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1210 (Nov. 1) The Jews of England imprisoned by King John.

1211 Many French and English rabbis emigrate to Palestine.

1212 The Jews of Toledo killed by Crusaders under the Cistercian monk Arnold; first persecution of Jews in Castile.

1215 Magna Charta of England limits rights of the crown in Jewish debts to the principal. Fourth Lateran Council under Pope Innocent III, among many anti-Jewish measures decrees the Jew badge.

1221 Jews killed at Erfurt.

1222 Golden Bull of Hungary refuses Jews the right to hold public office. Council of Oxford imposes restrictions on the English Jews.

1223 (Nov. 8) Rabbinical Synod of Mayence regulates the payment of the Jewish taxes.

1227 Council of Narbonne re-enacts the anti-Jewish decrees of the fourth Lateran Council.

1230 (Dec.) “Statutum de Tudeis” in France by Louis IX prohibits Jews from making contracts or leaving their lord’s lands.

1234 (Dec. 10) Jews of Fulda find a murdered Christian; 261 Jews killed in consequence.

1236 Frederick II takes Jews of Sicily under his protection as being his “servi camerae” (first use of this term).


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1240 (June 25) Disputation before Louis of France between Nicholas Donin and the Jews represented by Jehiel of Paris, Moses of Coucy, Talmudist and itinerant preacher, and two others.

1241 (May 24) Riot at Frankfort on account of a Jewish convert. Jewish Parliament summoned to Worcester, England.

1244 Archduke Frederick II the Valiant, of Austria, grants privileges to the Jews (“Privilegium Fredericianum”). Twenty four wagon-loads of Talmuds and other manuscripts (1200) burned at Paris.

1246 James I of Aragon, in the Ordenamiento of Huesca, declares Jews to be “in commanda regis.” Council of Beziers forbids Jews to practice medicine.

1254 (Dec.) Louis IX expels Jews from France.

1255 (July 31) St. Hugh of Lincoln disappears and the Jews are accused of murdering him for ritual purposes.

1259 Jahudan de Cavalleria becomes “bayle-general” and treasurer of Aragon. Provincial council of Fritzlar for province of Mayence repeats several of the canonical restrictions, including the badge (first time in Germany).

1261 Expulsion from Brabant, under will of Henry III, of all Jews except those living by trade.

1263 Disputation at Barcelona between Pablo Christiani and Nahmanides.

1264 Massacres at London, Canterbury, Winchester, and Cambridge by the barons in revolt against Henry III.


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1265 (May 2) Persecution at Sunzig; 72 persons burned in synagogue.

1267 (May 12) Synod of Vienna, under Cardinal Guida, orders Jews to wear pointed hats.

1270 (June 23) Persecution at Weissenburg.

1273 (Nov.) Jews of Lerida obtain permission to substitute oath by the Ten Commandments for the oath “more Judaico.”

1274 (July 7) Gregory X issues bull against blood accusation.

1275 Jews expelled from Marlborough, Gloucester, Worcester, and Cambridge, at request of the queen-Mother.

1280 Alfonso X orders all Jews of Leon and Castile to be imprisoned till they pay 12,000 maravedis, and 12,000 for every day of delay in payment. English Jews forced to attend sermons of Dominicans.

1285 Blood accusation at Munich.

1285 (June 28) Meir ben Baruch of Rothenburg (1220-1293), chief rabbi of Germany, imprisoned when about to emigrate. Sancho of Castile in Cortes of Palencia orders Jews to submit their cases to the ordinary alcaldes (abolition of legislative autonomy). (Nov. 30) Bull of Honorius IV to archbishops of York and Canterbury against Talmud.

1287 (May 2) All Jews in England thrown into prison.

1290 (Nov. 1) Jews banished from England.


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1292 Ritual murder accusation and riot at Colmar.

1294 (Aug. 7) Bolko I of Silesia grants Jews “Privilegium Fredericanum.”

1295 (June 23) Boniface VIII enters Rome and spurns the Torah presented to him by Jewish deputation.

1297 “Judenordnung” for Brandenburg.

1298 Persecution of the Jews in Germany instigated by Rindfleisch; Mordecai ben Hillel a martyr.

1301 Jews plundered and slain at Magdeburg.

1303 Ordinance of Philip the Fair enacts that all trials between Christians and Jews be decided by regular courts.

1306 First expulsion of the Jews from France under Philip the Fair.

1315 (July 28) Jews recalled to France by Louis X for twelve years.

1320 The Pastoreaux persecutions in France (“gezeret ha-Ro’im”).

1321 The Leper persecution in France (“gezeret mezoralim”), (June 24) Second expulsion of the Jews from France: Five thousand slain in Dauphine on charge of well poisoning.

1322 (Pentecost) Talmuds burned in Rome.

133,0 Alleged desecration of host at Gustrow.

1334 (Oct, 9) Casimir III the Great, of Poland, grants Jews “Privilegium Fredericianum.”


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1335 Host-tragedy at Constance.

1337 (May) Armleder massacres at Ensisheim, Muhlhausen, Rufach, etc.

1346 Blood accusation at Munich.

1348 (Feb. 28) The ordenamiento of Alcaza orders all usury to cease. (July 16) Karl IV forbids Jews being summoned before the Vehmgericht.

1348-1349 Persecution of the Jews in central Europe on account of the Black Death. Pope Clement VI issues two bulls protecting them.

1350 Alfonso IV of Portugal enforces the badge (first in the Peninsula).

1351 Cortes of Valladolid demands the abolition of the judicial autonomy of Spanish-Jewish communities. Jews burned at Konigsberg in Neumark.

1353 Jews invited back to Worms on account of their usefulness.

1360 (Nov.) Samuel Abulafia dies under torture on the charge of peculation. Manessier de Vesoul obtains from King John a decree permitting Jews to dwell in France.

1365 Jews expelled by Louis the Great from Hungary; many go to Wallachia.

1370 All Jews imprisoned and robbed in Austria.

1380 (Nov. 16) Riot in Paris; many Jews plundered, several killed, most fled.

1381 A synod at Mayence regulates the rabbinical marriage laws.


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1357 Jews expelled from Basle.

1359 (Apr. 18) The charge of insult to a priest carrying the sacrament leads to the massacres of the Jews in Prague.

1391 (June 6) Spanish horrors begin; Ferdinand Martinez incites the mob against the Jews of Seville; anti-Jewish riots spread throughout Castile and Aragon.

1394 (Nov. 3) Third and last expulsion of the Jews from France, under Charles VI.

1400 Persecution of the Jews of Prague at the instigation of the convert Pessach; Lipmann of Muhlhausen among the sufferers.

1403 (Oct. 25) Juan II of Castile withdraws civil jurisdiction from Jews.

1405 Jews expelled from Speyer.

1407 (Oct. 26) Jews attacked at Cracow.

1410 (Sept.) Meir Alguades slain on charge of host desecration.

1411 Vincent Ferrer raises the populace against the Jews. Second general massacre of Jews in all the Spanish provinces.

1413 (Jan. 7) Religious disputation at Torttosa arranged by Pope Benedict XIII between Geronimo de Santa Fe and Vidal ben Benveniste ibn Labi and Joseph Albo.

1415 (May 11) Bull of Benedict XIII against the Talmud and any Jewish book attacking Christianity.


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1420 Charges of host-desecration lead to the putting to death of a number of Jews and to the expulsion of the remainder and Lower and Upper Austria.

1423 Jews expelled from Cologne.

1424 Jews expelled from Zurich.

1432 Rabbinical synod at Valladolid. Host-tragedy at Segovia. A synod at Avila, under Abraham Benveniste Senior provides for an educational system for Jewish Spain.

1434 The Council of Basle renews old and devises new canonical restrictions against Jews. Annihilation of the Jews of Majorca.

1435 Jews expelled from Speyer.

1438 Jews expelled from Mayence.

1440 Jews expelled from Augsburg.

1447 Casimir IV of Poland grants special privileges to Jews.

1450 Ludwig X of Bavaria throws all the Jews in forty towns into prison and confiscates their property.

1451 Nicholas de Cusa enforces the wearing of the Jew badge in Germany.

1454 (May 2) Forty-one Jews burned at Breslau, and Jews expelled from Brunn and Omutz, through Capistrano.

1458 Jews expelled from Erfurt.

1460 (March 5) The States of Austria demand that no Jew be permitted to dwell there. Jews expelled from Savoy.


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1464 (April 12) Jews plundered and murdered by soldiers in Cracow.

1467 Eighteen Jews burned at Nuremberg.

1465 Jews expelled from Neisse by the guilds Blood accusation brought against Jews of Sepulveda.

1469 Jews plundered and slain at Posen.

1470 Jews expelled from bishopric of Mayence.

1475 Bernardinus of Feltre preaches against the Jews in Italy. The Jews charged with the murder of Simon of Trent for ritual purposes. Riots in Padua and elsewhere in Italy and Sicily.

1476 Blood accusation in Regensburg through the convert Wolfram.

1477 Jews plundered at Calmar and burned at Passau; the rest expelled through bishop.

1478 Jews expelled from diocese of Bamberg on account of Simon of Trent affair.

1481 The Inquisition against the Maranos established in Seville and at other places in Castile.

1482 Inquisition established in Aragon; Thomas de Torquernada, chief inquisitor.

1484 Jews expelled from Aries.

1486 (Feb. 12) Auto da fe at Toledo at which 740 were absolved. (Dec, 10) Another auto at same place; 900 Jews “reconciled.”


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1488 (Jan. 25) First auto at Barcelona, (May 24 and July 30) Autos da fe at Toledo; at former, 21 Jews burned, 400 punished; at later, 76 burned.

1490 (Dec.) Jews expelled from Geneva,

1492 (Aug. 2) Expulsion of the Jews from Spain.

1494 Jews plundered in Naples. Blood accusation at Turnau.

1495 Jews expelled from Florence, but readmitted after a few months on account of their utility; Jews expelled from Lithuania.

1496 Expulsion of Jews from Styria. Manoel of Portugal orders the Jews to accept baptism or leave the country.

1498 The exiles settled in Navarre banished. Jews expelled from Nuremberg and Ulm.

1501 (July) Fifty-four Jews burned at Seville.

1502 Appearance of pseudo-Messiah Asher Lammlein.

1503 Pfefferkorn denounces Reuchlin. (March) 22) Jews permitted to return to Lithuania. (Dec. 27) Judaizing followers of Zechariah of Kiev burned at Moscow.

1505 Jews expelled from Orange. All slain at Budweis on a child-murder accusation.

1506 Jews settle in Pinsk and secure synagogues and cemetery. Massacre of 4,000 Maranos in Lisbon.

1508 (July 15) Royal decree issued expelling Jews from Portugal.


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1510 Burning of Jewish books at Frankfort. Thirty-eight Jews burned in Berlin for host-desecration and child-murder, (Graetz, ix, 94).

1516 (March) Venice sets apart a special quarter for a Ghetto (first use of the term).

1524 The Jews of Cairo threatened with destruction by Ahmad Shaitan, viceroy of Egypt. Jews return to Genoa.

1529 (May 21) Thirty Jews burned at Posing on blood accusation. Solomon Molko (Dioga Pires, 1503:-1532) begins his Messianic agitation.

1530 (Aug. 12) Josel of Rosheim obtains extension of Alsatian privileges from Charles V.

1531-Clement VII issues a bull establishing the Portuguese Inquisition for Maranos.

1541 Jews expelled from Naples.

1542 Jews expelled from Bohemia because of fires in Prague and other towns.

1543 Luther publishes his attack on the Jews.

1548 (July 10) Eighteen hundred Maranos released from the prisons of the Inquisition in Portugal.

1550 (April 2) Jews banished from Genoa.

1551 Jews expelled from Bavaria and Wurttemberg.

1554 (June 21) Rabbinical synod at Ferrara.

1555 Paul IV issues the bull “Cum nimis Absurdum,” Jews expelled from Palestine.


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1556 Twenty-four Jews of Ancona hanged and burned by order of Paul IV.

1567 Don Joseph Nassi appointed ruler of Naxos and eleven other islands of the Grecian archipelago. (June 15) Jews expelled from Genoese territory.

1568 Isaac Zuria Levi (1534.-1572), cabalist, pretends to be the Messiah, son of Joseph.

1569 (Feb. 26) Bull of Pius V, “Hebraeorum Gens”, expells Jews from Papal States except Rome, Bologna, and Ancona.

1570 Solomon Ashkenazi sent as an envoy to Venice by Sultan Selim II.

1573 (Jan. 28) The Jew Lippold executed at Berlin; all Jews expelled from Brandenburg.

1576 Stephen Bathori allows the Jews of Poland to carry on trade without restrictions.

1582 Expulsion from Silesia.

1586 (circa). The Jews of Poland establish the council of Four Lands; Mordecai Jafe probably its first president.

1592 (Aug. 17) Papal edict forbids Jews to admit Christians into synagogues, etc.

1593 Clement VIII expels the Jews from all the Papal States except Rome and Ancona. The first Marano settlement in Holland made at Amsterdam under Jacob Tirado.


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1596 Persecution of the Persian Jews by Shaw Abbas the Great.

1598 Bet Jacob synagogue consecrated at Amsterdam.

1612 Portuguese Jews granted right of residence in Hamburg.

1614 (Sept. 2) Vincent Fettmilch’s attack upon the Jews at Frankfort.

1615 Jews of Worms banished.

1616 Jews return to Frankfort and Worms.

1617 (Jan. 3) “Nene Stattgkeit” for Frankfort makes right of domicile for Jews perpetual.

1629 (June 26) Lippman Heller forced to leave his post as rabbi in Prague.

1632 (April 20) Proselyte Nicalas Antoine burned at Geneva. (July 4) Auto de fe at Madrid.

1639 Dutch West India, Company grants Jews of Guiana full religious liberty.

1642 Six hundred Jews of Amsterdam with Isaac Aboab as hakam settle at Pernambuco.

1646 The Jews in Brazil side with the Dutch in their war with the-Portuguese.

1648 The beginning of the Cossack persecutions of the Jews in Poland under Chmielnicki.

1652 Two sites along the coast of Curacao granted to David Nassi for a Jewish colony.


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1654 (July 8) Twenty-four Jews land at New Amsterdam, from Brazil.

1655 (Oct.) Menasseh ben Israel goes to London to obtain from Cromwell the re-admission of Jews into England.

1657 (Feb. 4) Resettlement Day; Oliver Cromwell grants Carvajal right of residence for Jews in England.

1659 (Feb. 26) Jews expelled from all the Papal States except Rome and Ancona.

1660 Jews expelled from Kiev by Alexis.

1665 Shabbethai Zebi (1626-1676) publicly accepted as the Messiah at Smyrna.

1667 (Feb. 14 ) Jews run races at the Roman carnival for the last time.

1670 Jews banished from Vienna and Lower Austria by Emperor Leopold I, Synod of Lithuanian rabbis and deputies settle spheres of jurisdiction in relation to central kahals.

1671 Frederick William, the Great Elector, grants a privilege for twenty years to fifty families driven from Austria.

1678 Appearance of the pseudo-Messiah Mordecai Moshiah of Eisenstadt.

1680 (June 30) Auto da fe at Madrid.

1682 (May 10) Auto da fe at Lisbon.

1686 Jews the victims of the Imperialist soldiery at the recapture of Buda from Turks.

1690 Ninety Jews from Curacao settle at Newport, R.I.


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1695 Jews forbidden to enter Sweden by Charles IX.

1700 The house of Oppenheimer in Vienna attacked by a mob. Eisenmenger attempts to publish his “Entdecktes Judenthum.”

1703 Jonas Aaron settles in Philadelphia.

1710 The “Judenordnung” of Hamburg determines the social conditions of the Jews of that city.

1716 (July 24-25) Serious uprising against the Jews at storming of Posen.

1727 (April 26) Jews expelled from Russia and the Ukraine by Catherine, (Nov. 15) Act passed by General Assembly of New York permitting Jews to omit “on the faith of a Christian” from oath of abjuration.

1732 (Sept. 2) “Editto sopra gli Ebrei” of Clement III renews all restrictions against Jews of Rome.

1733 (July) Forty Jews from Lisbon arrive at Savannah, Ga.

1738 (Feb. 4) Joseph Suss Oppenheimer executed at Vienna.

1740 (Feb. 3) Charles the Burbon, King of Naples and of the two Sicilies, invites the Jews back for fifty years. (July 11) Jews expelled from Little Russia by Czarina Anne. Act passed by English Parliament naturalizing Jews settled in the American colonies.

1742 (Dec. 2) Jews expelled from Great Russia by Czarina Elizabeth.


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1744 (Dec. 18) Expulsion of Jews from Bohemia and Moravia.

1747 Bull of Benedict XIV decides that a Jewish child baptized, even against canonical law, must be brought up under Christian influences.

1748 Jews permitted to remain in Bohemia on payment of a “Judensteuer” of 216,000 florins.

1750 (April 17) Frederick the Great issues a “Generalprivilegium” for the Prussian Jews.

1753 Act passed by English Parliament permitting Jews to be naturalized. “No Jews, no wooden shoes” riots in England.

1754 Act granting naturalization to English Jews repealed.

1756 Blood accusation in Jampol, Poland.

1757 Jacob Frank becomes leader of the Shabbethaians. Bishop of Kamenitz- Podolsk orders Talmuds to be burned.

1761 Persecution of Jews in Yemen.

1767 (June 20) Cossacks slay thousands of Jews at Homel.

1772 Jews settle in Stockholm, Karlskrona, and Gothenburg, by favor of Gustavus III.

1776 (Oct. 17) Senatorial decree of Russia grants freedom of settlement and other rights to baptized Jews.

1781 Joseph II of Austria abolishes the Jewish poll-tax, and grants civil liberties to the Jews.


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1782 Joseph II issues his Toleration Edict.

1787 Frederick William II removes the “Liebzoll” in Prussia.

1790 The French-National Assembly grants citizenship to the Sephardic Jews of Bordeaux. New constitution for Jews of Silesia; a few receive general privileges, etc.

1791 The French National Assembly grants full civil rights to the Jews.

1796 Jews of Holland declared by the National Assembly to be full citizens of the Batavian Republic.

1797 (Aug. 1) Two Jews, Bromet and De Lemon, elected members of the second National Assembly of Holland,

1801 “Leibzoll” removed in Nassau.

1803 Israel Jacobson and Wolff Breidenbach agitate the abolition of the poll-tax for Jews in Germany.

1804 (Dec. 9) “Enactment concerning the Jews” passed by Alexander I of Russia.

1807 The Great Sanhedrin convened by Napoleon; Joseph David Sinzheim president.

1808 (Jan. 27) Jerome Napoleon issues decree giving full civic rights to Jews of Westphalia, (Dec.. 11) Napoleon at Madrid issues decree dividing the French Empire into Jewish consistories.

1809 Law of Baden forms Jews into special religious community with all privileges.


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1811 The Jews of Hamburg emancipated.

1812 The Jews of Prussia emancipated.

1813 (Feb. 18) The Jews. of Mecklenburg emancipated.

1815 (June 8) “Bundesakte” passed at the Congress of Vienna decrees maintenance of status quo in-the political condition of the Jews.

1818 First Reform Temple in Hamburg opened.

1819 (Aug.) The beginning of the “Hep, hep!” persecutions. Formation of the Society for the Culture and Science of the Jews, by Zunz, Gans and Moser.

1820 Jews admitted at Lisbon.

1825 Jews expelled from St. Petersburg through influence of guilds.

1826 Jews obtain full civic rights in the state of Maryland, U.S.A. Decree issued in Russia enrolling Jews for military service.

1831 Louis Philippe orders salaries of rabbis to be paid by the State.

1833 (Oct. 29) Jews of Kur-Hessen granted full emancipation.

1835 (April 13) General Jewish regulations issued in Russia. Edict of Nicholas I founding agricultural colonies in Russia.

1836 Laws refusing Jews the right to bear Christian names renewed in Prussia.


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1839 Sultan ‘Abd al-Majid grants citizenship to Turkish Jews.

1840 (Feb. 5) Damascus blood accusation. (Nov. 6) Firman issued by sultan against blood accusation.

1844 (May 25) Louis Philippe issues regulations for the internal organization of French Jews. (June) Rabbinical conference at Brunswick.

1845 (April) Ukase issued ordering Russian and Polish Jews to adopt ordinary costume.

1848 Emancipation Year: most of the countries of Central Europe grant full civic and political rights to Jews – in the majority of cases, repealed the next year. (May 19-20) Riots in Presburg.

1849 (July 2) Baron Lionel de Rothschild, previously returned as M.P. for city of London, not allowed to take seat.

1852 (Sept. 3) Violent anti-Jewish riots at Stockholm.

1856 (Feb. 18) “Hatti-Humayun” issued, granting full civic rights to Turkish Jews.

1858 (June 24) Edgar Mortara in Ancona forcibly taken from his family by Bishop of Bologna on plea that he had been baptized when an infant by a Roman Catholic servant. The oath “on the true faith of a Christian” abolished in England; Jewish disabilities removed.

1860 Alliance Israelite Universelle founded.

1863 (July) Emancipation of Swiss Jews.


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1866 Roumanian (Romanian) constitution, clause 7, makes all Roumanian (Romanian) Jews “aliens.”

1868 Jews permitted to return to Spain. The law of the North German Federation of July 3 decrees that no state shall retain restrictions on the ground of religious belief.

1870 (March) Thirteen hundred and sixty Jews expelled from districts of Falciu and Vaslui, Roumania (Romania).

1871 Anglo-Jewish Association founded.

1873 Union of American Hebrew Congregations established.

1876 (July 28) E. Lasker procures the passing of the “Austrittgesatz,” permitting Jews to change their congregation.

1878 (July 13) The Berlin Congress inserts clause 44, that distinction of religion shall not be a bar to civil and political rights in Roumania (Romania).

1880 (Nov. 20-22) Debate in Prussian Diet on Kantorowicz incident.

1881 Atrocities against Jews in South Russia. (April 25) Anti-Semitic league in Germany presents petition with 255,000 signatures to Prince Bismark, (April 27) Riot at Argenau.

1882 (April 7) Disappearance of Esther Solymosi causes a trial on blood accusation at Tisza-Eszlar, (May 3) “May Laws” issued by General Ignatief confining the Jews in the Pale of Settlement to the towns.


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1884 (March 7) Roumanian (Romanian) law prohibiting hawking put 5,000 Jewish families out of employment. (July 9) Lord Rothschild takes his first Jewish peer in the British House of Lords.

1885 Pittsburgh Conference of American Rabbis establishes a platform for Reform Judaism.

1886 Drumont publishes “La France Juive.”

1887 (Feb. 28) Roumanian (Romanian) law excluding Jews from public service and from tobacco trade and from employment in retail trade.

1889 (May 12) Roumanian (Romanian) law limiting number of Jewish factory hands to one-third.

1890 (Dec. 10) Guildhall meeting against persecution of Russian Jews by May Laws.

1891 (June 29) Blood accusation at Xanten.

1892 Jewish Colonization Association founded by Baron de Hirsch.

1893 (Jan. 14) Roumanian (Romanian) law prohibiting Jews from being employed in public medical department.

1895 Capt. Albert Dreyfus condemned and degraded as a spy and deported to Devil’s Isle, Cayenne.

1897 (Aug. 29-31) First Zionist Congress at Basle.


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