Watchman's Teaching Letter #122 June 2008
This is my one hundred twenty-second monthly teaching letter and continues my eleventh year of publication. In the last lesson, #121, we reviewed portions of lesson #’s 119 & 120, where the shortcomings of the Septuagint were discussed. We learned in those two lessons how the New Testament writers quoted from flawed passages from the LXX. That there are translation errors in our present Bibles may not accord well with some people. But whether they agree or not does not change the fact that somewhere along the line some passages, for one reason or another, have been corrupted. But don’t get overly disturbed by this revelation, as scholarly investigation can many times overcome these irregular defects.
With this lesson we will continue our perusal of the writings of the apostle Paul. It may not appear that this is what we are doing at times, especially in the last three letters, but without understanding that the New Testament writers were quoting from a sometimes flawed Septuagint, some of the problems cannot be properly resolved. When scrutinizing Paul’s epistles, we must first of all understand that they were addressed to the ethnê (nations); the nations that the lost tribes of Israel had formed. Not understanding that most of the time the Greek word ethnê means “nations” – rather than non-jew – has caused untold confusion by nominal churchianity. Trying to reduce the world’s population to two categories (jew & gentile) has caused inestimable damage. Paul’s commission was not to the Latin term “gentiles”, but rather to the ethnê (nations). Paul’s commission was also to a genetically White people, and not to all the races of the world, as some so blatantly insist.
For instance, let’s just consider the Zerah-Judah branch of Israel alone, to whom Paul would minister. One of the down-line descendants of Zerah (the scarlet thread people, related to Rahab) was Dara or Darda, or Dardanus, as called by the first century historian Josephus (a full-blooded Levite), or Darius as referred to in various Trojan genealogies. Darda is given credit as the founder of the colony which built the city of Troy. Darda’s offspring never entered the land of Canaan with Joshua, nor took part in the Exodus with the main body of the Israelites under Moses. Ostensibly, some of Zerah-Judah left Egypt during the 150 year period before a new king arose to power in Egypt, which “knew not Joseph”. That Pharaoh is accredited as saying: “Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we; Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land”, Exod. 1:9-10. The Egyptians engaged in trade with Greece and some of the traders from Egypt were Israelites; a number of them being from the tribe of Dan. And this trading probably took place while there was less oppression from the Egyptian pharaoh.
E. Raymond Capt in his book Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets, states: “Argos is said by the Greeks to have been the birthplace of Hercules, but Herodotus, who went to some trouble to find out who Hercules really was, made a special voyage to Tyre (Strabo ii, 44) and found an older Temple to Hercules. The daring adventures and exploits of the Grecian Hercules (Heracles) is [sic are] more probably those of semi-traders and buccaneers of Tyre and Dan. In Hebrew, rakal means to trade and Heracleem [rakal with the article ‘he’ and the plural suffix] means traders. Those who went forth from Argos and subdued other parts of Greece are spoken of as Heraclidae or descendants of Heracles.”
The down-line progeny from Dardanus were: Erichthonius, Tros, Ilus, Laomedon, Priam, Hector, and Astyanax. Tros, being the grandson of Dardanus, gave his name to Troy. Tros had another son who was called Assaracus, from whom came Capys, who fathered Anchises, who fathered Aeneas. Priam was the king of Troy at its fall, while Hector was the foremost of its warriors. Yet Aeneas was a noted hero in the aftermath of the war.
After the close of the Trojan war, Aeneas journeyed with his son Ascanius to Italy, where they were welcomed with accolades by King Latinus. Latinus then proceeded to make Aeneas the envy of King Rutuli, a rival. In due time, Aeneas engaged in war with King Rutuli, defeating him to become the king of Italy (at that time called Latium). Ascanius then married Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus, having a son named Sylvius, who in turn married Lavinia’s niece and had a son named Brutus, another distinguished Trojan hero.
In his book Father Abraham’s Children, Perry Edward Powell, Ph. D., pp. 98-99 gives us another historical account of this same story: “Zerah’s son Ethan, very wise, and indeed this line of Judah-Zerah is the only royal line termed wise, on the other hand led his people north, from Egypt where he was born, into what is now Asia Minor, and his son Mahol continued likewise. Mahol’s heir, Darda, reached the western shore, where on a commanding site, he founded the metropolis of Troy. The date is 1520 B.C. Here the city flourished for nearly four hundred years. Darda first saw the straits that separated Europe and Asia and gave them his name, Dardanelles. Darda also founded a fort here that is named after him. But the greatest honor is recorded in the Bible, Solomon was ‘wiser than all men; than ... Darda the son of Mahol.’ Thus great was the founder of Troy and the sire of the Trojan race whose children abide with us still ...
“When Troy fell she did so to arise on another shore in eternal and imperial splendor. I am not referring to Italy. That empire though long was ephemeral (short-lived). Italy is an interlude only. Aeneas, a member of the old royal family, attained the kingship, led the saddened Trojans around the Mediterranean Sea, as graphically described in the Aenead, and finally brought them to their new home on the Tiber in Italy ...
“Here on the Tiber happened a very sad event, too sad to be recalled, and would not be except for its denouement (final outcome). Brutus was one day hunting with his father Silvius, when he spied the prey, as he thought, and let fly an arrow. On running up he was shocked and grieved to find that he had killed his own father! Some people then, as now, were censorious and Brutus departed from the new colony, from which later sprang Rome, and with his royal followers, went to Greece, rallied the enslaved Trojans, defeated King Pendrasus, thus erasing the defeat of Troy, and as victor exacted these terms; he must give his daughter Ignoge for a wife, furnish a big fleet of ships fully provisioned, for his emigrant force of seven thousand men, and free permission for them to sail unmolested. ...
“Brutus, now with an object and direction, steered west through the straits (pillars) of Hercules, then northward along the east Atlantic main, across the English Channel to the present river Dart, and up its stream to Totnes where stepping on a large stone he landed on the great island which was ever to bear his name as a memorial among the proud nations of the world. This rock, more famous throughout the centuries than Plymouth Rock, is marked as Brutus Rock, and has been visited perennially by people of all nations, all ranks, and all ages. With his people he explored the whole island and he apportioned to each one according to his rank and services. At last he decided the proper place for his capital, a choice bank of the Thames river, so named for a stream, Thyamis, in Epirus from which he first sailed, and there he built his metropolis, and according to the advice of the oracle, he named it Tri Novantum, New Troy. This name it bore for over eleven hundred years when King Lud at the beginning of the Christian era built her walls and renamed her Luddun, Lud’s wall, easily refined into London. London is also derived by some from Llandin, meaning ‘Sacred eminence.’ London dates from three hundred-fifty years before Rome. Why should Rome be called the Eternal City? ...”
After a time of colonizing, when houses and farms began to mark the land, Brutus called the island after himself, naming it Brit-ain and the people Brit-ons. He initiated the building of a city, calling it New Troy, which is in Latin Tri-Novantum, which lasted until Lud began to build walls around it to defend against the advances of Julius Ceasar, whereupon the name changed to Caer-Lud, the City of Lud. Today we call that city London.
Again from the book Father Abraham’s Children, pp. 102-103 we read: “Rome and Britain are at variance in their primitive history. Rome always emphasizes the story of Romulus and Remus who, bereft of their own mother, and cast into the flooded Tiber, were rescued by a she-wolf who took them to her den and played the mother act. A woodpecker also carried them dainties from her store. Thus their lives were preserved for the great benefit of humanity! This delectable bit from the far past is in our histories and schoolrooms as something to be remembered. It is enough to say that we have nothing so savory in the ancient past of old Britain. Perhaps that is the reason that our schools pass over the founding of the British Empire by Trojan-Welsh. But some time the whole story will be written and told. ...
“The Roman writers and travellers after much experience admit that Britons (Cymry) had laws that excelled their own, and were highly skilled in agriculture. ‘The extraordinary similarity that exists between many of our early laws’, says Yeatman, ‘and those of the Israelites might raise an inference that they were copied from them after the introduction of Christianity, but positive evidence exists of their preexistence.’ ‘The common law is identical in principal with what was known as the Law of the Lord as given in the books of Exodus.’ The British system of law is superior to any other European system although several countries were more benefitted by Rome[’s law].”
In Britain the first king to wear a golden crown, who also is remembered as the Solomon of Britain, was Molmutius the lawgiver in 450 B.C. He based his law on the code brought by Brutus to Britain in 1100 B.C. Brutus was the one responsible for bringing these precepts and laws to Britain from Troy and Greece, and they were virtually identical to the laws Yahweh gave to Moses. Among the nations, the Brits were the first to have the Common Law, which held that a person was innocent until proven guilty. King Molmutius is also given credit for building the roads of Britain. History wrongly gives credit to the Romans whose roads came centuries after the British had constructed theirs. Upon the completion of the roads came the Triad - Three things were to be free to a country and its borders; the roads, the rivers, and the places of worship. These three were to be under the protection of God and His peace. The term “King’s Highway” originated in this law.
Greece is the next to be considered, because the very heart of the most advanced societies of the world have progressively moved westward. Before the scattering of Israel, Greece began to phase-in as the world’s next major center of western civilization. “Greeks” is not a Greek term and the Greeks didn’t call themselves Greeks but rather Hellenes, Achaeans, Danai, Ionians, Dorians, etc. The first faction calling them Greeks were the Romans, which is from their Latin word “Graeci”. As for the Lacedaemonians, Dorians who were also know as Spartans, it has been found in a writing concerning the Spartans and the pureblooded Judahites of Judaea, that they are kinsmen, and that they are both descended from Abraham. 1 Macc. 12:19-21: “19 And this is the copy of the letters which Oniares sent, 20 Areus king of the Lacedemonians to Onias the high priest, greeting: 21 It is found in writing, that the Lacedemonians and Judahites are brethren, and that they are of the stock of Abraham.” As to the Danai, the tribe of Dan was famous for their explorations on the high seas as well as over land. Thus the tribe of Dan has left his name within several locations such as: Danai, Danube, Donetz, Danzig, Dnieper, Dniester, Donsk, Denmark, Scandinavia, Macedonia, and Sardinia.
It is difficult sometimes for the Bible scholar to separate a geographical area from a tribe of people. William Finck, in giving me great assistance on this exposé, wrote a note to me thusly: “‘Lacedaemonian’ is a geographic distinction, for the name described a district of Peloponnesus where the chief city was Sparta. After the Dorian invasion, the people who dwelt there were principally Dorians. ‘Dorian’ and ‘Ionian’ are tribal names, as is ‘Danai’. All of these tribes collectively called themselves ‘Hellenes’.” It’s the same old bugaboo as with the Israelite lady, Ruth. Ruth, in reality, was an Israelite lady from a geographical area formerly called the “country of Moab”, (Ruth 4:3). I hope this bit of advice by William helps you as much as it did me!
It was the Semitic Israelites and related people who were colonizing and advancing civilization. On the other side of the coin, there are the Canaanite-jews, pretending to be Israelites, who are parasites and infiltrate and corrupt civilizations. The latter are literally the sperm of Satan by the sexual seduction of Eve who gave them birth; (in plain language, Cain and his progeny)! By the time of Yahshua Christ there were hardly any pureblooded Israelites left in Judaea. At that time, any Israelites from the ten northern tribes of Israel were almost nonexistent in the area of Palestine. And from the southern kingdom there were but few; a smattering of pureblooded Judahites along with a smattering of Benjamites and fewer yet of pureblooded Levites. And as the population of pureblooded Israelites decreased in Judaea, the population of Canaanite-Edomite-jews increased, that is until 70 A.D., when Rome decimated a substantial part of them! This Paul had predicted at Rom. 16:20.
BRITAIN’S LAWS: From all of this we can see, while most of the continent of Europe struggled under Roman law which was later codified by Justinian, Britain was thriving under laws based on the laws of Yahweh. For more on British law, I am going to quote from Celt, Druid and Culdee by Isabel Hill Elder, pages 25, 49, and 77:
Page 25- “Another point on which Britain differs from other countries is that she has ever maintained the Common Law which holds a person under trial innocent until proven guilty, whereas the Continental nations maintain the Civil Law [of Justinian] which holds him guilty until proven innocent.”
Page 49- “That the Britons adopted anything they thought good from the Romans is perfectly true; they did not, however, abandon any of their old essential laws and customs and still less their religion. But it is as untrue to say that the Britons had no previous civilization of their own as it is to pretend that Roman laws and customs permanently established themselves in Britain and remained after the legions were withdrawn. There is sufficient evidence to prove that the ancestors of the British, centuries before the Romans gained a footing in these islands, were a polished and intellectual people, skilled in arms as well as in learning, with a system of jurisprudence of their own, superior even to the laws of Rome.”
Page 77- “Cusack says that the whole system of government and legislation was patriarchal — indicative of an Eastern origin — and that in the Brehon laws, said to be the oldest code of laws in Europe, there are evidences which look very much like a trace of Jewish [sic Judah-Zerah] tradition.
“Another writer affirms that the Brehon Code in parts is a republication of the Mosaic law which declared that the first-born of every creature, including the first-born of man, was to be presented to the Lord (Exod. 13:2; Num. 18:15). ...
“Camden gives a quotation from Postellius’ lecture on Pomponius Mela, a first-century writer: ‘Ireland was called Jurin, quasi Jewsland [sic Judahland], because in the distant past the Jews [sic Judahites of] (Israel), who were great soothsayers, knew that the future empire of the world would come to these parts.’
“The Psalter of Cashel says: ‘The Tuatha de Danaan ruled in Ireland for about two centuries and were highly skilled in architecture and other arts from their long residence in Greece.’
“Sir Henry Maine observed: ‘We who are able here to examine coolly the ancient Irish law in an authentic form see that it is a very remarkable body of archaic law, unusually pure from its origin’.”
We should be beginning to get a pretty well-rounded picture in our minds of the great differences between Justinian’s law codes and Britain’s law codes. For a little more history on this, I am going to return to the book, Father Abraham’s Children, pages 104-105:
“In the course of chronology, for I am following the royal line in its descent and great achievements, we come to the great law-giver, which is a rarity among the people of the world. His name is Dyvnwal Moelmud or in Latin Dunwallo Malmutius and he is often referred to by the historian who is acquainted with the history of Britain before the advent of the Anglo-Saxon. He reduced the whole island of Great Britain to his sway as his ancestor Brutus had done and during his long reign of forty years gave them a distinguished code of laws named for him the Malmutian Laws. He is buried in Trinovantum, now London. Shakespeare has enshrined his glory thus:
‘... Malmutius made our laws;
Who was the first of Britain which did put
His brow within a golden crown, and called
Himself a king.’
“Just three reigns later came one who achieved even greater fame and longer service and she was a woman, the queen of Guytelin of Guithelin Batrus. Her name is Queen Martia, the author of the famed Martian Laws which centuries later by only making the necessary changes for time and place were adopted by Alfred the Great and are the basis for the present English laws. Then what shall be the praises of Queen Martia? Why is not she equally famous?”
It is evident from all we have investigated thus far, the laws of Rome under Justinian and the ancient laws of Britain were and are as different as day is from night and are 180° apart. It may come as a surprise to many, but Daniel prophesied the coming of the Justinian Law Code. I will now make reference to Daniel 7:24-25:
The part we are going to concentrate on is: “... and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.”
To start the discussion on this passage, I am going to quote from William V. Fowler’s book, End Time Revelation, page 127:
“To identify the ten horns of the fourth beast which was the Roman Empire, one has but to examine history which records that ten kingdoms arose after A.D. 476 in the western half of the Roman Empire, while the eastern half continued to flourish. History also reveals that Justinian at the head of the Eastern (Roman) Empire at Constantinople subdued three of the ten kingdoms which were established in the western half of the Roman Empire after the fall of Imperial Rome. These were the Vandals whose kingdom had been established in north Africa, the Ostrogoths who had established a kingdom in Italy, and the Alemanian kingdom north of Italy. ‘And he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings’ (verse 24). Justinian, as head of the civil government, united the interest of the church and established the Temporal Power of the Papacy which clearly fulfilled the prophetic little horn by dominating Europe for 1,260 years until curtailed by Napoleon, (538 A.D. to 1798 A.D.).
“And he shall speak great words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and think to change times and laws (verse 25). Justinian’s best known work was as a codifier and legislator. He greatly stimulated legal studies, and set up a commission under Tribonian which issued the codex, the digest, and the institutes. (Originally introduced in Dec. 534 A.D., and completed in 538 A.D.). The second edition of the codex contained Justinian’s own laws known as the Novels (Novellae Constitutions). One need only read the utterances of Pope Innocent III in the thirteenth century and his immediate successors to recognize the fulfillment of speaking ‘great words against the Most High.’ Study the history of the Inquisition with its massacres, martyrdoms and every kind of persecution to substantiate this interpretation. (See Halley’s Bible Handbook, chapter on Church History.)”
The important thing to notice with this passage is that we are looking for a king of a kingdom who subdued three other kingdoms of our people during his reign. You will also notice we are looking for a king, who, during his reign had a very strong impact upon writing and managing laws. You will notice Justinian fits both of these qualifications. As we go along, the picture of the fulfillment of this passage will start to come into focus. I will now quote from The World Book Encyclopedia, volume 11, page 168 to get further insight on this subject:
“JUSTINIAN I, jus TIN ih un (A.D. 482-565), was the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from A.D. 527 until his death. He collected Roman laws under one code, the Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law). This code, also known as the Justinian Code, is the basis of the legal systems in many nations today ... Justinian was called The Great. He recaptured many parts of what had been the West Roman Empire from barbarians. He built fortresses, harbors, monasteries, and the famous church of Saint Sophia in what is now Istanbul, Turkey.
“Justinian was born in a part of Macedonia that is now in Yugoslavia. His uncle, Emperor Justin I, made him co-ruler in 527. Justin died a few months later, and Justinian became sole emperor. During Justinian’s reign, his wife, Theodora, tried to influence his politics ... Justinian was an orthodox Christian, and tried to unify his empire under one Christian faith. He persecuted Christian heretics (those who opposed church teachings), Jews, and pagans (non-Christians). In 529, he closed the schools of philosophy in Athens, Greece, because he felt they taught paganism.
“In the early 530’s, Justinian began a series of wars against the Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Visigoths, who had conquered most of the West Roman Empire in the 400’s. By the mid-550’s his armies had taken northern Africa, Italy, and parts of Spain ...
“JUSTINIAN CODE. Justinian I, ruler of the eastern Roman Empire from 527 to 565, commanded 10 of the wisest men in his realm to draw up a collection of the Roman laws. This collection is known as the Corpus Juris Civilis, which means Body of Civil Law. Also called the Justinian Code, this body of law is recognized as one of the greatest Roman contributions to civilization. It was a compilation of early Roman laws and legal principles, illustrated by cases, and combined with an explanation of new laws, and future legislation. The code clarified the laws of those times, and has since been a basis for the law codes of many countries.
“The scholars who compiled the Justinian Code divided it into four parts. The Institutes served as a textbook in law for students and lawyers. The Digest was a casebook covering many trials and decisions. The Codex was a collection of statutes and principles. The Novels contained proposed new laws.”
You will notice in both of these quotes, three kingdoms were taken by Justinian. William V. Fowler records them the same as The World Book Encyclopedia, except for the Alemanian which The World Book Encyclopedia calls the Visigoths. The Alemanni and Visigoths are different tribes of the same people, so there is no problem here. Justinian was corrupting the church and the state with his law code. All of this is very interesting and important, for the founding fathers of the United States chose the Common Law of Britain (the law of Brutus, or Trojan law) rather than the Justinian Law Code as the law governing our country. So whenever one hears a United States Congressman or Senator speak of “the rule of law”, to which law system is he referring? And one should keep in mind that Brutus’s Common Law is none other than the law that Yahweh gave to Moses. Yes, our laws in the United States were established on the foundation of Biblical law! And no Canaanite-jew has the authority to alter any of them to differ from Biblical law! That is also why a Canaanite should never be appointed to the United States Supreme Court, or any other office, which is in itself a violation of Biblical law!!!
You may not realize it, but we are still on the subject of the apostle Paul, for when he ministered to the Romans, by-and-large he was addressing former Trojans of the tribe Zerah-Judah. That would include the Julian clan of Caesars. This lesson has been an effort to trace the line of Zerah-Judah through the Bible, and then through secular history right up until our present day, with no missing links, and much of the evidence comes out of the Greek Classics, especially Homer. All of the testimony is available for anyone to obtain and confirm for themselves for those who have eyes to see and ears to hear. The truth of the matter is that a good share of the Romans were Israelites. And the knowledge of this fact puts an entirely different perspective on the crucifixion of Yahshua Christ than the majority realize! Actually, the Romans were closely related to Christ, as Zerah-Judah was a brother tribe to Pharez-Judah, Yahshua’s lineal ancestor, and both branches of Judah were Royal. Is it any wonder, then, that Yahshua forgave the Roman soldiers who had the job of executing Him? Yahshua never forgave the Canaanite-jews for their legal responsibility for His crucifixion, and neither should we! Pilate, the governor of Judaea, may have also descended from the Trojans, and Pilate spoke for the entire Empire of Rome when he declared “... I find no fault in this man.” So we can see from Pilate’s judgment, there would have been no crucifixion had not the Canaanite-jews demanded it! Christ was related to the Romans, not the Canaanites!
Paul, like Christ, went to the lost tribes of Israel with the Gospel, not to the so-called “gentiles”, which has the corrupted definition of “non-jew” by the greater part of the clergy today! The Greek word was ethnê, meaning “nations”, not the Latin gentilis. How do we know, then, that Paul went to the lost tribes of Israel? At no time did Paul countermand the teachings of Yahshua Christ, for we read at 1 Cor. 11:1: “Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of Christ.” Paul, in effect, was saying: “If I follow not Yahshua Christ in any way shape or manner, then do not follow me, but follow me only to the extent in which I myself follow Christ.” And Yahshua Christ Himself said, “... I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel”, Matt. 15:24. Therefore if Paul went to someone other than “unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel”, he did not follow Christ! And the Trojan-Romans were some of those “lost sheep”, as one can plainly observe from the documentation presented in this lesson!
To go back to the beginning for more details surrounding the story of Zerah-Judah, and collect fundamental data, I will quote an excerpt from Destiny Magazine (Yearbook), May, 1947, the last of a series called “Study In Jeremiah” entitled “Building and Planting”, by Howard Rand, found on pages 163-166:
“Pharez and Zarah. Let us pause here to briefly outline the history of the Zarah branch of Judah’s posterity. Judah had two sons by Tamar, named Pharez and Zarah. When Jacob and his family went down into Egypt Zarah, as yet, had no children. Pharez was accompanied by two sons, Hezron and Hamul. Two sons, Ethan and Zimri, were born to Zarah in Egypt. Ethan profited by the opportunities he received in the land and so did his son Mahol, who also enjoyed the same advantages. Their success won them much fame so that they are named in connection with Solomon whose wisdom did exceed theirs: ‘And Solomon’s wisdom excelled the wisdom of all the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt, For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all nations round about.’ (I Kings 4:30-31)”
The whole object of this lesson has been to walk the reader through both the Bible and secular history in regard to Judah’s twin son Zerah, from Egypt all the way to Britain, with no missing links. I have read both in books and articles on the Internet on this subject which make an effort to accomplish this same goal, but many corrupt the subject in one way or another.
With the help of William Finck, I believe you will find this exposé contextually more accurate on our subject than most anywhere else. To put this article together, I had to pull together everything I had learned on the subject over the last approximate twenty-five years. I also followed the general outline of topical articles on the Internet, but some of those drifted off into such error, that I decided to rewrite such citations in my own words rather than confuse the reader. After I had written my first draft, William cited several passages where he suggested that I should strike them, which I did. Upon sending a second draft to William, he returned it with a few minor changes to be made, including one citation that I had added which he rated at only 65%, which I also deleted. I should also point out that my other proofreaders helped in making this essay what it is.
Once we understand the true history of Zerah-Judah, we can better understand the Romans to whom Paul went were Israelites, and it renders a preferable perspective on Yahshua’s crucifixion! Hence, it is absurd to call the Romans “gentiles”, for they were truly of Judah.