Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. as typeset by him, from: www.ditext.com/franklin/observations.html [“” omitted]
1. Tables of the Proportion of Marriages to Births, of Deaths to Births, of Marriages to the Numbers of Inhabitants, etc. form’d on Observations made upon the Bills of Mortality, Christnings, etc. of populous Cities, will not suit Countries; nor will Tables form’d on Observations made on full settled old Countries, as Europe, suit new Countries, as America.
2. For People increase in Proportion to the Number of Marriages, and that is greater in Proportion to the Ease and Convenience of supporting a Family. When Families can be easily supported, more Persons marry, and earlier in Life.
3. In Cities, where all Trades, Occupations and Offices are many delay marrying, till they can see how to bear the Charges of a Family; which Charges are greater in Cities, as Luxury Is more common: many [stay] single during Life, and continue Servants to Families, Journeymen to Trades, hence Cities do not by natural Generation supply themselves with Inhabitants; the Deaths are more than the Births.
4. In Countries full settled, the Case must be nearly the same; all Lands being occupied and improved to the Heighth; those who cannot get Land, must Labour for others that have it; when Labourers are plenty, their Wages Will be low; by low Wages a Family is supported with Difficulty; this Difficulty deters many from Marriage, who therefore long continue Servants and single. – Only as the Cities take Supplies of People from the Country, and thereby make a little more Room in the Country; Marriage is a little more incourag’d there, and the Births exceed the Deaths.