I recently completed and distributed an essay entitled The Fraud Perpetrated In The Field Of Genetics, and I will now zero in on the above subject. I am sure that most serious Bible students understand that Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and all the twelve tribes of Israel reckoned their lineage from their fathers! What is not widely known is the fact that the converso Edomite-jews, for the most part reckon their lineage from their mothers! This should wave a red flag to all Christians that those calling themselves “jews” are not the “Israelites” of the Old Testament! I will now cite the following website [and one must grasp that this is a jewish website and written from a jewish perspective]:
“Matrilineality in Judaism
“Matrilineality in Judaism is the view that people born of a Jewish mother are themselves Jewish. The Torah does not explicitly discuss the conferring of Jewish status through matrilineality. The Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) also provides many examples of Israelite men whose children begotten through foreign women appear to have been accepted as Israelite. In contrast, Jewish oral tradition codified in Mishnah in the 2nd century CE serves as the basis of a shift in Rabbinic Judaism from patrilineal to matrilineal descent.
“The Mishnah (Kiddushin 3:12) states that, to be a Jew, one must be either the child of a Jewish mother or a convert to Judaism, (ger tzedek, ‘righteous convert’). Orthodox opinion regards this rule as dating from receipt of the Torah at Mount Sinai, but most non-Orthodox scholars regard it as originating either at the time of Ezra (4th Century BCE) or during the period of Roman rule in the 1st-2nd centuries CE, as patrilineal descent is known to have been the standard of Judaism prior to that time. [jews refuse A.D., and use CE instead in order to reject Christ’s Dominion, CAE]
“In the Hellenistic period of the 4th Century BCE – 1st Century CE some evidence may be interpreted to indicate that the offspring of intermarriages between Jewish men and non-Jewish women were considered Jewish; as is usual in prerabbinic texts, there is no mention of conversion on the part of the Gentile spouse. On the other hand, Philo of Alexandria calls the child of a Jew and a non-Jew a nothos (bastard), regardless of whether the non-Jewish parent is the father or the mother. [Philo is correct if the term “Israelite” is used; also note that the jews use BCE, rather than B.C., CAE]
“Karaite Judaism holds that Judaism can only be transmitted through the father, and thus holds a rule of patrilineality. As a result, historical Karaite Jewish and Rabbinical Jewish communities would usually not intermarry with each other, even when the two Jewish communities lived side by side, such as in Alexandria and the Crimea. Karaite Judaism argues that Jewish identity can only be passed through the father, since all Jewish descent in the Tanakh is traced patrilineally. [1 sect admitting this doesn’t acquit the others. CAE]
“With the emergence of Jewish denominations and the modern rise in Jewish intermarriage in the 20th century, questions about the law of matrilineal descent have assumed greater importance to the Jewish community at large. The heterogeneous Jewish community is divided on the issue of ‘Who is a Jew?’ via descent; matrilineal descent still is the rule within Orthodox Judaism, which also holds that anyone with a Jewish mother has an irrevocable Jewish status, and matrilineal descent is the norm in the Conservative movement. Since 1983, Reform Judaism in the United States of America officially adopted a bilineal policy: one is a Jew if either of one’s parents is Jewish, provided that either (a) one is raised as a Jew, by Reform standards, or (b) one engages in an appropriate act of public identification, formalizing a practice that had been common in Reform synagogues for at least a generation. Karaite Judaism, which includes only the Tanakh in its canon, interprets the Torah to indicate that Jewishness passes exclusively through the father’s line, maintaining the system of patrilineality that many scholars believe was the practice of ancient Israel.” [Note: The Edomite-jews have just thrown the patriarchal system of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and his twelve sons, under the bus! CAE]
Today, geneticists are falsely trying to make everyone believe that mitochondrial DNA originates only from a female ovarian oocyte, and follows down-line forever from mother to daughter, with each generation of sons receiving the benefit of a different mother’s mitochondrial DNA, which I will elaborate on later. For details, I will quote from the website:
“What is mitochondrial DNA?
“Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. This genetic material is known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA.“Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus (the cytoplasm).
“Mitochondria produce energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. This process uses oxygen and simple sugars to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s main energy source. A set of enzyme complexes, designated as complexes I-V, carry out oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria.
“In addition to energy production, mitochondria play a role in several other cellular activities. For example, mitochondria help regulate the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). They are also necessary for the production of substances such as cholesterol and heme (a component of hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in the blood).
“Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function. Thirteen of these genes provide instructions for making enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. The remaining genes provide instructions for making molecules called transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), which are chemical cousins of DNA. These types of RNA help assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning proteins.” At the following website we read in part: http: //micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/mitochondria.html
“Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles that can be considered the power generators of the cell, converting oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the chemical energy ‘currency’ of the cell that powers the cell’s metabolic activities. This process is called aerobic respiration and is the reason animals breathe oxygen. Without mitochondria (singular, mitochondrion), higher animals would likely not exist because their cells would only be able to obtain energy from anaerobic respiration (in the absence of oxygen), a process much less efficient than aerobic respiration. In fact, mitochondria enable cells to produce 15 times more ATP than they could otherwise, and complex animals, like humans, need large amounts of energy in order to survive.
“The number of mitochondria present in a cell depends upon the metabolic requirements of that cell, and may range from a single large mitochondrion to thousands of the organelles. Mitochondria, which are found in nearly all eukaryotes, including plants, animals, fungi, and protists, are large enough to be observed with a light microscope and were first discovered in the 1800s. The name of the organelles was coined to reflect the way they looked to the first scientists to observe them, stemming from the Greek words for ‘thread’ and ‘granule.’ For many years after their discovery, mitochondria were commonly believed to transmit hereditary information. It was not until the mid-1950s when a method for isolating the organelles intact was developed that the modern understanding of mitochondrial function was worked out.
“The elaborate structure of a mitochondrion is very important to the functioning of the organelle ... Two specialized membranes encircle each mitochondrion present in a cell, dividing the organelle into a narrow intermembrane space and a much larger internal matrix, each of which contains highly specialized proteins. The outer membrane of a mitochondrion contains many channels formed by the protein porin and acts like a sieve, filtering out molecules that are too big. Similarly, the inner membrane, which is highly convoluted so that a large number of infoldings called cristae are formed, also allows only certain molecules to pass through it and is much more selective than the outer membrane. To make certain that only those materials essential to the matrix are allowed into it, the inner membrane utilizes a group of transport proteins that will only transport the correct molecules. Together, the various compartments of a mitochondrion are able to work in harmony to generate ATP in a complex multi-step process.
“Mitochondria are generally oblong organelles, which range in size between 1 and 10 micrometers in length, and occur in numbers that directly correlate with the cell’s level of metabolic activity. The organelles are quite flexible, however, and time-lapse studies of living cells have demonstrated that mitochondria change shape rapidly and move about in the cell almost constantly. Movements of the organelles appear to be linked in some way to the microtubules present in the cell, and are probably transported along the network with motor proteins. Consequently, mitochondria may be organized into lengthy traveling chains, packed tightly into relatively stable groups, or appear in many other formations based upon the particular needs of the cell and the characteristics of its microtubular network.
“Presented in Figure 2 [not shown here] is a digital image of the mitochondrial network found in the ovarian tissue from a mountain goat relative, known as the Himalayan Tahr, as seen through a fluorescence optical microscope. The extensive intertwined network is labeled with a synthetic dye named MitoTracker Red (red fluorescence) that localizes in the respiring mitochondria of living cells in culture. The rare twin nuclei in this cell were counterstained with a blue dye (cyan fluorescence) to denote their centralized location in relation to the mitochondrial network. Fluorescence microscopy is an important tool that scientists use to examine the structure and function of internal cellular organelles.
“The mitochondrion is different from most other organelles because it has its own circular DNA (similar to the DNA of prokaryotes) and reproduces independently of the cell in which it is found; an apparent case of endosymbiosis.”
[Now for some Edomite-jewish evolution propaganda]: “The mitochondrion is different from most other organelles because it has its own circular DNA (similar to the DNA of prokaryotes) and reproduces independently of the cell in which it is found; an apparent case of endosymbiosis. Scientists hypothesize that millions of years ago small, free-living prokaryotes were engulfed, but not consumed, by larger prokaryotes, perhaps because they were able to resist the digestive enzymes of the host organism. The two organisms developed a symbiotic relationship over time, the larger organism providing the smaller with ample nutrients and the smaller organism providing ATP molecules to the larger one. Eventually, according to this view, the larger organism developed into the eukaryotic cell and the smaller organism into the mitochondrion.” [Pile it higher and higher! CAE] – continuing:
“Mitochondrial DNA is localized to the matrix, which also contains a host of enzymes, as well as ribosomes for protein synthesis. Many of the critical metabolic steps of cellular respiration are catalyzed by enzymes that are able to diffuse through the mitochondrial matrix. The other proteins involved in respiration, including the enzyme that generates ATP, are embedded within the mitochondrial inner membrane. Infolding of the cristae dramatically increases the surface area available for hosting the enzymes responsible for cellular respiration.
“Mitochondria are similar to plant chloroplasts in that both organelles are able to produce energy and metabolites that are required by the host cell. As discussed above, mitochondria are the sites of respiration, and generate chemical energy in the form of ATP by metabolizing sugars, fats, and other chemical fuels with the assistance of molecular oxygen. Chloroplasts, in contrast, are found only in plants and algae, and are the primary sites of photosynthesis. These organelles work in a different manner to convert energy from the sun into the biosynthesis of required organic nutrients using carbon dioxide and water. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts also contain their own DNA and are able to grow and reproduce independently within the cell.
“In most animal species, mitochondria appear to be primarily inherited through the maternal lineage, though some recent evidence suggests that in rare instances mitochondria may also be inherited via a paternal route. Typically, a sperm carries mitochondria in its tail as an energy source for its long journey to the egg. When the sperm attaches to the egg during fertilization, the tail falls off. Consequently, the only mitochondria the new organism usually gets are from the egg its mother provided. Therefore, unlike nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA doesn’t get shuffled every generation, so it is presumed to change at a slower rate, which is useful for the study of human evolution. Mitochondrial DNA is also used in forensic science as a tool for identifying corpses or body parts, and has been implicated in a number of genetic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes.” [Note: If the tail appears to fall off of the sperm, maybe rather the male mitochondrial DNA is actually absorbed and integrated with the female mitochondrial DNA! Surely this would be compatible and wouldn’t interfere with the normal 46 chromosomes of a perfectly formed fetus! CAE]
There is absolutely no doubt that mitochondrial DNA actually does exist, but the question and bottom line is: From whence does it originate? The fact of the matter is that upon fertilization of the female oocyte by a male sperm, a single cell comes into existence. To grasp this, one must be aware of a process called “mitosis”! From the 1980 Collier’s Encyclopedia, vol. 5, p. 613, under the subtitle “Mitosis” we read in part:
“MITOSIS: After the chromosomes have duplicated, it is necessary to ensure that each of the daughter cells gets one of each kind of chromosome. A random division of the cell would not bring about this result. Instead, it is achieved by a special process called mitosis ... Stripped of detail, the essential point is that the chromosomes come to lie in a plane situated in the middle of the cell. The chromosomes then split lengthwise into two. Within each pair, one chromosome is pulled in one direction and the other is pulled in the opposite direction. In this way, a complete set of chromosomes comes to be situated at each end of the cell. The cell then divides between the two sets, producing two cells, each with a complete set of chromosomes ....”
From the following website we read in part:
“Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is not located in the cell nucleus and therefore is not subject to genetic recombination during mitosis. It also is not subject to the ‘mixing’ of male and female genetic material that comes with fertilization ....” [Therefore, mtDNA is around the periphery of the cell, and not in the center with the 46 chromosomes! CAE]
Now that we comprehend how the first fertilized human cell is divided successfully into two cells; each with a copy of the 46 chromosome DNA, the next step is to discover how these two cells continue to re-divide, some becoming eyes, ears, nose, tongue, hair, brain, 600 different muscles, over 200 bones, heart, stomach, liver, pancreas, bladder, arms, legs, toes, fingers, etc. All of these fall into the category of “Cell Fate Determination”. From the following website (that I don’t particularly recommend), we read in part at:
“Cell Fate Determination: Within the field of developmental biology one goal is to understand how a particular cell (or embryo) develops into the final cell type (or organism), essentially how a cell’s fate is determined. Within an embryo, 4 processes play out at the cellular and tissue level to essentially create the final organism. These processes are cell proliferation, cell specialization, cell interaction and cell movement. Each cell in the embryo receives and gives cues to its neighboring cells and retains a cell memory of its own cell proliferation history. Almost all animals undergo a similar sequence of events during embryogenesis and have, at least at this developmental stage, the three germ layers and undergo gastrulation. While embryogenesis has been studied for more than a century, it was only recently (the past 15 years or so) that scientists discovered that a basic set of the same proteins and mRNAs are involved in all of embryogenesis. This is one of the reasons that model systems such as the fly (Drosophila melanogaster), the mouse (Muridae), and the leech (Helobdella), can all be used to study embryogenesis and developmental biology relevant to other animals, including humans. What continues to be discovered and investigated is how the basic set of proteins (and mRNAs) are expressed differentially between cell types, temporally and spatially; and whether this is responsible for the vast diversity of organism’s produced. This leads to one of the key questions of developmental biology, how is the fate if the cell determined.” We read in part at website:
“Differentiation: The process of cell specialization during development is called differentiation. The differentiation process proceeds by the progressive specialization of the protein contents of a cell. Each type of cell in a mature organism has a unique collection of proteins. The blueprints for making these proteins are found in the nucleus of each cell in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Therefore, the starting place for understanding the process of differentiation lies in the nucleus of the original zygote, which contains all of the genetic instructions (DNA) to make all of the cell type repertoire of the mature organism. The original cell is totipotent, which means that it can give rise to any cell type. As the embryo develops, some cells differentiate, while others, called stem cells, remain pluripotent, which means that they can give rise to a certain subset of cell types called a lineage ....
“Other experiments supported an alternative hypothesis: that cell specialization reflects the differential regulation of the full set of genes in each cell type. This means that all cells in a mature organism (muscle cells), all have the same set of genes, but only a subset of those genes are turned ‘on’ in any specific cell type. Therefore, the process of differentiation involves the activation (turning on) of some genes and the inactivation (turning off) of other genes, in order to get the specific collection of proteins that characterizes that cell type ....”
I lean more toward this latter explanation as I explained in my The Fraud Perpetrated In The Field Of Genetics, where I stated “Often, a faulty, damaged, or missing p53 gene is to blame. The p53 gene makes a protein that stops mutated cells from dividing. Without this protein, cells divide unchecked and become tumors.” Conception begins when 23 male chromosomes join with 23 female chromosomes to make one fetus cell. It then divides to make 2 cells, and those 2 cells divide making 4, and the dividing continues making 8, then 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and so on. This process is very much needed during gestation, childhood and the teen-years, but must slow down, just maintaining the number of cells need from about the age of 20.
Today among some embryologists there is a false hypothesis dubbed “Mitochondrial Eve” who supposedly lived some 200,000 years ago, and all the races of today evolved from this single negress, whose ancestors left Africa perhaps 90,000 years ago. This hypothesis is based on a faulty premise, forcing a flawed conclusion that mitochondrial DNA goes from mother to daughter down-line forever intact.
This whole conjecture smells of the Edomite-jewish matrilineal (female-descent) nonsense to me!